White.D, University (2017) ‘week 12 promoting children’s

White.D, 2003-2018. Study.com
– Social
Deprivation: Definition & Index, Online,
Available at https://study.com/academy/lesson/social-deprivation-definition-index.html. Accessed 26th January 2018.

The Psych
Liverpool Team 2016, Genie: A
psychological case study, Online, Available at https://www.psychliverpool.co.uk/psychology-news/developmental/genie-a-psychological-case-study/. Accessed 26th January
2018.

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The
Oxford Dictionary, 2018. Definition of
resilience, Online. Available at https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/resilience, Accessed 27th January
2018.

The Open
University (2016), E102 An introduction
to childhood studies and child psychology, Chapter 3 Nature and Nurture. Milton Keynes, The Open University.

The Open
University (2017), ‘Week 12 promoting children’s welfare, activity 1 Adversity
and protective factors’, A care plan for
Jan, E102, Block 2 supporting children’s lives. Online. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1017480&section=1.1. Accessed 27th January
2018.

The Open
University (2017), ‘week 12 promoting children’s welfare, activity 2 reflecting
on the importance of protective factors’, E102, block 2 supporting children’s
lives. Online. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1017480&section=1.2. Accessed 26th January
2018.

Mcleod.S
(2007), Simply Psychology – Bowlby’s
attachment theory, Online Available at https://simplypsychology.org/bowlby.html. Accessed 26th January
2018.

Happer
et al, 2006. Celebrating success: What
helps looked after children succeed. Online. Available at http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/129024/0030718.pdf. Accessed 27th January
2018.

Happer
et al, 2006. The Open University (2017) ‘week 12 promoting children’s welfare,
activity 2 reflecting on the importance of protective factors’, E102, block 2
supporting children’s lives. Online. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1017480=1.2. Accessed 27th January
2018.

Children’s
Bureau, Child welfare information gateway, N.D. Protective factors to promote well-being, Online, Available at https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/preventing/promoting/protectfactors/. Accessed 26th January
2018.

References

Word Count – 2158
words

I was very happy with the feedback from TMA01 and feel
that I have been able to become better at writing academically through this as
it has enabled me to develop many skills before undertaking this assignment and
feel that I was able to write a more in depth and detailed essay as a result.

As well as addressing the key points I also addressed
a point that was briefly mentioned in my feedback. This was to reference and
acknowledge all sources of information and include in-text citations. I worked
through the referencing your sources section of the OU skills for study page
and made notes on the different types of referencing. I was then able to refer to
this when referencing in the essay, which I did as I went along so as not to
get too confused at the end.

In order to write to the full word limit I tried to
explain things in more detail without repeating myself. I read each sentence
after writing to ensure it made sense and was of the best possible standard.

The next area for development that I addressed was
preparing to write more structured and integrated essays. I addressed this by
creating a plan of my essay. I split the essay into sections and used my notes
to gather the correct information needed to write the assignment. The plan
helped me to structure my essay into clear and detailed paragraphs. Whilst
doing this I was also able to address the issue of engaging with the course
material within the assignment as I highlighted key points that may be useful
then integrated them into the essay as well as incorporating some research from
sources on the internet to bulk the essay out a bit.

The first area for development that I addressed was
identifying and understanding key terms and perspectives. I did this by going
over all previous chapters in the study book using the critical reading techniques
and notetaking techniques that I had learned during previous weeks. I was able
to develop a good quality set of notes to use when writing this assignment.

I reflected on these points by firstly reading through
the feedback a few times to ensure that I understood the areas for improvement
as well as to see what I had done well in TMA01 so that I did not get too
disheartened and was ready to develop these skills.

I took all these points into account when writing
TMA02 and addressed them individually to ensure that I had included and
improved upon them all.

B)      Describe how you took the developmental
points identified by your tutor into account in writing TMA02

The key areas for development that were identified by
my tutor in TMA01 were to ensure that I write to the full word limit and
prepare to write more structured and integrated essays. Other areas for
improvement from TMA01 included identifying and understanding key terms and
perspectives and making sure I am engaging with the course material within the
assignments.

A)      What were the key areas of development
your tutor identified as needing to be addressed in TMA01?

Part 2 – Reflection (492 words)

 

 

 

 

 

 

In conclusion protective factors are very important
for the development of resilience as they help to not only overcome the
adversities that a child experiences but also give the child a strong sense of
self-esteem and confidence therefore allowing them to grow up to become more well-adjusted
adults and members of society.

The use of care plans is essential as they identify
the risks to the child and factors that can be considered when deciding the
right care for them. The case study of Jan (E102, Activity 1 – Adversity and
protective factors) is an example of how identifying the adversity factors and
creating protective factors can assist in creating a positive care decision for
the child and aid in developing resilience. Jan had some factors that could be
perceived as risk factors such as never having a father around in his life, his
mother struggling with poor mental health and Jan experiencing anger when he
felt contained or unable to explain why he felt contained. Positive factors
identified were that Jan enjoyed interacting with others, was very talented at
swimming and had interests such a playing with his best friend at the park.
Having protective factors put in place in his foster placement such as support
and encouragement to continue swimming, having another child in the house to
interact with and his own space would give Jan the best platform to begin to
develop resilience because it will enable him to see that he can overcome his
adversities and become a stronger person for it, resulting in better success
with overcoming future challenges.

Protective factors are attributes that can reduce or
eliminate risks that are present in families and communities. They help to
promote the health and well-being of children and their families (Child welfare
information gateway, 2018). Protective factors are characteristics and
capabilities such as relationships, self-esteem and skills as well as support
from others (E102, activity 2- reflecting on the importance of protective
factors).  These factors are essential in
the support of children’s development of resilience because they can be put
into care planning to aid the process of development and help them overcome
adversity. Resilience is defined as “the capacity to recover quickly from
difficulties” (Oxford dictionary, 2018). Looked after children and young people
would need to develop this skill as they may have experienced certain
adversities in their lives such as foster care or helping to care for others.
Happer et al, 2006 (E102, activity 2 – reflecting on the importance of protective
factors) produced a report on the welfare of looked after children. In the
report they looked at several looked after children and their opinions of being
looked after. The participants all identified positives such as being treated
equally and fairly, having a routine and having high expectations placed upon
them. Happer et al, 2006 identified five factors that they thought were
important in the success of children. They are; “having people who care about
you, experiencing stability, being given high expectations, receiving
encouragement and support and being able to participate and
achieve”(Celebrating success: What helps looked after children succeed, p.3)  These factors can all aid in developing
resilience because they give the children stability and help them overcome the
adversities and challenges that they have previously experienced. It gives them
the skills to continue to overcome similar situations in the future.

The second part of this essay will be focusing on
protective factors and the role they play in supporting children’s development
of resilience.

B)      Describe what is meant by the term ‘protective
factors’ and explain the role they play in supporting children’s development of
‘resilience’.

 

In conclusion the many studies
into the effects of deprivation have all shown that can have a negative effect
on all aspects of a child’s development. However, other factors such as
developmental disabilities should be considered when making these assumptions.

Genie is also an extreme example
of how a child’s physical development can be negatively affected by
deprivation. Her parents tied her limbs together and she was limited on space
to move in especially at night when she was confined to her cot which was
covered in mesh to prevent her from getting out (psychliverpool.co.uk, 2016). Because
of this mistreatment she was severely underdeveloped physically and the people
who found her assumed that she was of a younger age than she was.

Intellectual development can be
affected by social deprivation in the following ways. The child can show a low
educational attainment and may exhibit a lack of knowledge of social
interactions, such as how to react when spoken to by another or how to act in
certain social situations. The child may also have a low IQ. For example,
although Genie (psychliverpool.co.uk, 2016) was able to learn some
communication skills she was unable to speak with correct grammar and context,
therefore showing that she lacked the intellectual development that would allow
her to learn these skills due to the lack of communication she received from
her parents. Genie is an example of the link between deprivation and
development, however, it must be noted that she also had some developmental
disabilities, so the extent of the damage done by deprivation is not fully
clear.

As well as having a negative
effect on a child’s emotional development, Social deprivation can also affect
their physical, intellectual and social development. Social development can be
limited if they are socially deprived. They may be less interactive with
others, e.g playfulness may be low, they may also lack the skills needed to
function appropriately within society such as communication and understanding.
The child may also become withdrawn and lack interest in socialization.

It is shown from these case
studies that social deprivation can have a negative impact on child
development. Such effects can include low self-esteem, low cognitive
development, minimal social skills, poor social interactions and a low level of
educational attainment. There are various studies that have looked at the
effects of deprivation on a child’s development. One such example is John
Bowlby’s attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969. www.simplypsychology.org). Bowlby
concluded that for a child to have an effective internal working model, the
process of being able to understand the self, the world and others, they must
form a strong attachment to their primary caregiver in the early stages of
their development and that if the chid was maternally deprived, they would
suffer cognitively, socially and emotionally later in life. The case study of
Victor supports Bowlby’s theory because although he learned some skills through
the care and teaching from Jean Itard, he still lacked essential skills such as
empathy and social communication. Skills that Bowlby believed were learned
early on through forming an attachment with the child’s primary caregiver.

Another case study that can be used as an example of social
deprivation is the case of Genie. Genie was discovered in 1970 at the age of 13
living in California. Her parents neglected and abused her by locking her in a
room tied to a potty and at night locked in a crib with her hands and feet
bound together (psychliverpool.co.uk, 2016). Her
father beat her and only communicated with her by growling. When she was found
she had no language skills and was severely underdeveloped. She is an example
of how negative social experiences can influence and effect a child’s
development. This case could be found to support the nurture side of the nature
vs nurture debate because Genie’s lack of development could be a result of the
treatment she received from her parents.

Examples of social deprivation can be found in cases such as
those of Feral children. The case of Victor (The open university, Block 2, 2016)
is an example of a child being socially deprived therefore lacking the skills
needed to participate successfully within society. Victor was found in
southwestern France at an estimated age of 11-12 years old. It was predicted
that he was abandoned when he was younger and had lived in the woods until he
was eventually discovered in the late eighteenth century. Victor had no speech
skills but could hear and had scars all over him. Jean Itard took care of
Victor and hoped to nurture him to prove Locke’s theory that social experiences
were important to an individual’s development as he believed that all humans
were born as a ‘blank slate’. Even though Victor began to respond to simple
commands and wear clothes, he still did not have the skills deemed necessary
for social interaction such as language and empathy (The Open University, Block
2, 2016). It could be argued that this case favours the nature side of the
nature vs nurture debate because Victor had survived all those years by himself
without the influence of society.

Social deprivation is an umbrella
term that is used to describe the collection of factors that can contribute to
the limitation of an individual’s normal interactions within society. The
factors that can contribute or lead to social deprivation can be a variety of
situations including poverty, mental illness, poor education and any other
factor that can have a negative impact on an individual’s life. The presence of
these factors could lead to social exclusion. For example, an individual
suffering from mental illness who has little or no access to the correct
treatment due to lack of income or support may become embarrassed about their
illness and socially withdrawn from society. This can eventually lead to them
becoming socially excluded due to a decline in their social skills (Study.com,
2003-2018).

The first part of this essay will
be focusing on social deprivation and the effects it has on a child’s
development.

A)      Describe what is meant by ‘social
deprivation’ and explain its potential impact on child development.

Part 1 – Essay (1528 words)

TMA02: Supporting children’s lives

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