Up to have limited thinking and through

Up
to 100,000 years ago, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens have coexisted. However,
around 45,000-25,000 years ago, the species seemed to have become extinct due
to the increase in Homo sapiens and other external factors like climate change
or natural selection.

According
to The Valley of the Neanderthals,
written by Price Douglas, in 1886, one of the first skeletons of the
Neanderthal species were found. Then, in 1913, a study conducted by Marcellin
Boule was published on the same new species, but with a different skeleton in
France. From the hundreds of skeletons found throughout the ages, more light has
been shed on the evolution of our ancestors.

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For
example, scientists have discovered that Neanderthals first appeared around
250,000 years ago in Europe, along with tools that had been revealed alongside
them. According to the documentary Becoming
Human: Last Human Standing, the tools were heavy, and generally thicker
than Homo sapiens, which were lighter and more durable. Because of this, spears
made by the Neanderthals were harder and less efficient to use when pursuing, posing
a higher threat to the hunter. The differences in the spears made by a Homo sapien
compared to the ones of Neanderthals were that the earlier species had used
bigger stones/rocks for tools in general, like Levallois pieces, which were
hand axes found around Europe and Southwestern Asia.

From
this, one can also assume that they were hunters/carnivores, as also shown
through the ridges of their teeth. According to the same documentary The Last Human Standing, sometimes, the
bones of the deceased were found near the remains of large animals that are now
extinct, like the mammoth or cave lion or reindeer, which further proves that
they ate meat. As well, the chapter, Valley
of the Neanderthals, also explains that Neanderthals could have use their
teeth to grasp things. The burial of sacred items with the deceased, such as
flowers, food or tools may have been intentional which led scientists to believe
their thinking was more advanced than Homo erectus, which were the ancestors to
the species. By using tools and burying items with the dead, scientists know
that the brain capacity of Neanderthals were big enough to have limited thinking
and through the scratches on their teeth, the archeologists were also able to
recognize that the species could be right or left handed.

Another
important difference between the Neanderthals and Homo sapiens would be their obvious
physical differences. Because they lived in different stronger and colder climates,
Neanderthals tended to be bigger boned. The skeletons were shorter (around 5ft)
according to the same article. The Neanderthals also had bowed limbs and larger
joints, the cranium sat lower on the skull, the face was longer and the
teeth/nose sat farther forward than any other hominin. They also had bigger
brains compared to Homo sapiens. Another explanation given by the same documentary
proposed that the Neanderthals could have been super strong with high endurance,
which helped with long travels. From the famous skeleton of ___little boy____,
researchers were able to determine about how old he was, and how fast he might have
grown up, which then implies that he had less time for learning. One of the
ways that researchers had measured the remains would be through endocasts, which
measure the skulls, through that, it was discovered that the front of the skull
were similar to Homo sapiens.

Through
the study of archeology, scientists were able to determine where exactly the
ancestors of modern humans started out. the Neanderthals began and where they
became extinct. The species, Homo erectus started out in Africa several hundred
thousand years ago. From there, the part of the species moved out and ventured
towards Europe and parts of Asia where they evolved into Homo sapiens. However,
science says there might have been a mega drought or descending ice sheets
around 140,000 years ago, which pushed the few Neanderthals further into
Africa, in caves near the waters where their lifestyle changed dramatically. The
species had to adapt or become extinct. So as a solution, the species began shell
fishing and learned to cook them. The unfamiliar terrain had now become
familiar to them, with learning when the tides were low, and how to gather
berries and roots. They remained there for around 140,000 years. By this time,
the resources that were made had become more advanced and decoration become
popular (in caves, with jewelry, face paint). One the climate finally began to
improve, the Neanderthals moved from Africa towards Europe, where they had few
left.

In
the beginning, there were around 4 different types of humans, compared to 1
type today. After the Neanderthals moved out of Africa, there is little
evidence as to what exactly happened to them. One theory explains that they
were already on the brink of extinction, with their lack of fast adaptability,
like homo sapiens, and their limited technology and high energy consumption
(compared to the low energy and better tools of Homo sapiens), the Neanderthals
were already struggling. Another theory describes how modern humans took over
the species. Perhaps the most convincing idea is simply that the Homo sapiens
might’ve coexisted with Neanderthals, where mating could have taken place. As
well, the “bottleneck effect” was another concept as to how they disappeared
into the gene pool. Through hundreds of years of mating, the defining
characteristics of Neanderthals could have become less noticeable, and
therefore it’s like they had vanished. However, for now, it’s not entirely
clear as to why exactly they disappeared. 

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