This (31? 887 kg Xorg/ha) as compared

This study indicates that a substantial amount of chlorine (TX, Xorg and Xinorg) was present in all soilsamples from rainforest with the highest levels in upland soils. The measured Xorg levels were muchhigher in upland soil samples (31? 887 kg Xorg/ha) as compared with measured levels in Swedishforest soils (?130 kg Clorg / ha) (Öberg, 2002; Öberg and Sandén, 2005), but lower in SS and FS (4?21 kg Xorg/ha).The chlorine concentrations varied between the samples from the same sampling area but few metersapart from each other as shown in Figure 9 for (USA & USB), (USC & USD) and (FSA and FSB). Thelarge pool of chlorine in US as compared with aquatic soils (SS and FS) and the variation betweensamples few meters apart from each other on the same area might be associated with microbialactivities, that could be different at different sites depending on the substrates and other environmentalvariables explained by (Redon et al., 2011; Öberg and Bastviken, 2012).The variation between the samples is not surprising as it has already been reported that organicchlorine formation in forest soils is largely mediated by microbial activities through the action ofenzymes (Bastviken et al., 2007; Rohlenová et al., 2009). The microbial activities taking part inorganic chlorine formation in forest soils and enzymatic activities depend on the abundance of thesubstrate available for the reaction. For example, the content of organic carbon and inorganic chlorinein the case of the chlorination reactions and other environmental variables (Gustavsson et al., 2012).The molar based chlorine to carbon (Clorg ? C) ratio were comparatively higher in upland soil samples(USA-D) as compared with soil from aquatic environments (SSA-B and FSA-C). This Clorg ? C ratiodecreased with increasing soil depth for all types of soils studied (Table 5), which is in contrast to thestudy by (Öberg, 1998). This can be due to different halogens attached to the same organiccompounds at different depths and still there is poor understanding the mechanisms explainingchlorination, de-chlorination and transport of Clorg in forest soil profiles (Clarke et al., 2009; Öberg etal., 2005).


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