The that is used is this study

The research technique used is a cross-sectional
study design. This design is best used to studies aimed at finding out the
level of leisure activities among primary school teachers in Kubang Kerian,
Kelantan. Cross sectional study is basically quick and easy to conduct because
it does not need long periods of follow-up. The research design that is used is
this study is quantitative because this study is about to quantify the
relationship between socio demographics data and sleep quality with leisure
activity.

 

3.1 
Sample Design

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The population
of the study consisted of all primary teachers in Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubang
Kerian 1 (98 teachers) and Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubang Kerian 2 (60 teachers)
totalling 158 teachers. The schools had been contacted to get the exact number
of teachers. The sample of the study is 113 where it was calculated through
Raosoft Sample Size Software and it was set with 5% significance level (?) or
also known as Margin of Error. Null hypothesis will be rejected if the p value
is less than the determined level which is 5%. The relationship between sample
size and the Margin of Error are inversely proportional where the smaller the
sample sizes, the larger the Margin of Error (“Sample Size
Table”, 2018). Confidence level was set with 95% where it expressed as a
percentage and represents the certainty of the researcher that if the survey is
repeated, it would show the same result. The response distribution was set with
50%. The proportion of the sample with he desirable characteristic be substantially
different than 50%, then the desirable level of accuracy can be established
with a smaller sample. 50% is the best value to be assumed because the
researcher cannot know the percentage until the researcher asked the sample
itself (“Sample Size
Table”, 2018).

a.    Inclusion criteria

–         
Primary school teachers in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

–         
Participant’s age is between 24 to 59 years old.

–         
Teachers who are registered with Ministry of Education.

b.    Exclusion criteria

–         
Primary school teachers in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan who diagnosed as
mental illness.

–         
Trainee teachers in primary schools at Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

 

3.2  Study location/Settings

Two primary
schools from Kota Bharu district were chosen:

–         
     Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubang Kerian 1, Kelantan.

–         
     Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubang
Kerian 2, Kelantan.

 

 

3.4 Research Instruments

 

Research instruments that will be used are:

i.          Socio
demographic data form

The data in the questionnaire comprised on
respondent’s demographic information. Respondents need to state their name, age
and date of birth. Respondents need to choose and tick one box for their gender
(male or female), race (Malay, Chinese, Indian, or Others), marital status
(single, married, or divorced), and administrative duties in employment. Respondents
also been asked if they are a carer to any person in their house other than
their children and if they answer ‘Yes’, they need to verify about how long is the
dependent need a carer and what is the dependent’s ailments. Respondents have
to stated their education level, date of starting service as a teacher and they
also need to tick appropriate box for teaching loads and subjects teach in the
school. They can tick more than one box referring to what standard and subject
teach on current year. Respondents have to give information about their
children where they need to tick either they have children or not. If the
respondents choose ‘Yes’, then the respondents need to verify the numbers of
children and each of their children’s age. Respondents also will be asking if
they have a disable child (OKU) or child who has frequent illness that requires
respondents to take leave. For ‘Yes’ answer chosen, respondents have to clarify
the child’s diagnosis, date of onset, the common ailments and number of leave
taken due to this circumstances (Refer to appendix 1).

  

ii.         Leisure
assessment

Instrument used to measure participants’ engagement in leisure
activities is Modified Interest Checklist. The original Interest Checklist was
developed by Matsutsuyu, J in 1969. Later it was modified by Scaffa in 1981 and
then by Keilhofner and Neville in 1983. The 68 activities in the questionnaire
were maintained but the responses to the questions have been changed so that
detailed information can be gathered. The Modified Interest Checklist can be
used to explore leisure interests and participation among adults and
adolescents. Keilhofner and Neville have altered the responses of the checklist
to indicate what current interests are, how interests have changed, and whether
one participates or wishes to participate in an interest in the future. The
questionnaire is particularly useful for appreciating the impact that socio
demographic data has had on how the client is experiencing leisure activities
or significance of socio demographic data in altering a participant’s
attraction to particular kinds of activities. Duration needed to conduct the
questionnaire is 15 minutes. Participants need to answer either they have
‘Strong’, ‘Some’ or ‘No’ interest for each of the activity in the past ten
years and in the past year in the questionnaire. Participants also need to
answer either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ in the “Do you currently participate in this
activity” and “Would you like to pursue this in the future” columns
(Keilhofner, 2008). Roger (1988 as cited in Radomski & Latham, 2014) stated
that Modified Interest Checklist consists of good face validity where it
discriminates among diagnostic groups and normal control subjects. Rogers,
Weinstein, Figone (1978 as cited in Radomski & Latham, 2014) highlighted
that the questionnaire consists of excellent test-retest reliability (0.92)
within three weeks intervals. Klyczek, Bauer-Yox, & Fiedler (1997 as cited
in Radomski & Latham, 2014)  reported
that strengths of Modified Interest Checklist are quick to administer,
engagement in broad range of activities can be assessed over time, and it
contribute activity ideas for treatment planning while the weaknesses of the
checklist according to Radomski & Latham (2014) are it has lack of strong
validity and sensitivity data, participants might misinterpret some items and
it consist of limited testing to the patients with physical and psychological
disabilities (Refer to appendix 2).

 

iii.           Sleep quality
assessment.

The Pittsburgh Sleep
Quality Index (PSQI) is widely used in clinical and non-clinical research. The
purpose of the questionnaire is to assess sleep quality and sleep pattern during
the past month. It is a self-rated questionnaire with 9 items. PSQI distinguish
“poor” from “good” sleep quality by measuring seven areas or component which
are subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep
efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medications, and daytime
dysfunction over the last month. Total score of “5” or greater indicate poor
sleep quality where the component scores range from 0 to 3 and global scores
range from 0 to 21. PSQI has good reliability where the Pearson correlation
coefficient for the global score was 0.85 and correlations for the component
scores ranged from 0.65 to 0.84 (Knutson, Rathouz, Yan, Liu & Lauderdale,
2006). Internal consistency was adequate for the questionnaires’ total scores
where the global score of PSQI is ? = 0.69. Corrected component-total correlations
for daytime function component ranged from 

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