The in many chronic diseases where infectious

The ongoing industrialization and urbanization processes involving
transportation, manufacturing, construction, petroleum refining, mining, etc.,
produce large amounts of hazardous wastes which cause air, water, and soil pollution
and consequently threaten human public health and the environmental security.
The generated wastes are released to the environment in different forms, for
example atmospheric pollutants include toxic gases (nitrogen oxides, sulfur
oxides, carbon oxides, ozone, etc.), suspended airborne particles, and volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), while soil and water pollutants may comprise of
organic substances (pesticides, insecticides, phenols, hydrocarbons, etc.),
heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, etc.), as well as microbial
pathogens. These environmental pollutants have a great potential to adversely
influence the human health (Fereidoun et al. 2007; Kampa and Castanas 2008),
since they can find their way into human body either through inhalation,
ingestion, or absorption (Ibrahim et al., 2016). Worldwide
epidemiological studies have shown that human exposure to respirable
particulate matter is correlated with the increase in cardiac and respiratory
morbidity and mortality. Without question, combustion is a major source through
which particulate matter enters the atmosphere and it is therefore important to
understand the characteristics of these particles and their relation to adverse
health effects. In addition to environmental exposure through combustion-generated
nanoparticles, another human exposure route is the intentional use of
nanoparticles in engineering applications. The increasing use of manmade
nanomaterials to improve the performance of consumer products and medical
treatments may significantly increase the potential for human occupational and
environmental exposure to nanoparticles. Only, recently have the potential
health impacts of such exposure been critically questioned (DeLoid et al.,
2014; Weidemann et al., 2016).

 

Nanoparticles
may play a role in many chronic diseases where infectious pathogens have not
been suspected, diseases that were previously attributed only to genetic
factors and lifestyle. These small particles, nanoparticles, have the ability
to enter, translocate within, and damage living organisms. This ability results
primarily from their small size, which allows them to penetrate physiological
barriers and travel within the circulatory systems of a host. The smallest
particles contain tens or hundreds of atoms, with dimensions at the scale of
nanometers, hence nanoparticles. The toxicity of each of these materials
depends greatly, however, on the particular arrangement of its many atoms. Considering
all the possible variations in shape and chemistry of even the smallest
nanoparticles, with only tens of atoms, yields a huge number of distinct
materials with potentially very different physical and toxicological properties.

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Long-term
exposure to nanoparticles may cause serious damage to the human’s respiratory
tract, lung diseases, heart diseases, and premature death (Pui et al. 2014).
However, many emerging novelties of nanomaterials would expedite the rising of
potential risks to industrial workers, consumers, and the environment. Due to a
lack of complete standard diagnosis and regulation, the local medical
department refused to admit that an occupational hazard existed. Nanometer-sized
particles are created in countless physical processes from erosion to
combustion, with health risks ranging from lethal to benign. Industrial
nanoparticle materials today constitute a tiny but significant pollution source
that is, so far, literally buried beneath much larger natural sources and
nanoparticle pollution incidental to other human activities. While uncontained
nanoparticles clearly represent a serious health threat, fixed nanostructured
materials, such as thin film coatings, microchip electronics, and many other
existing nanoengineered materials, are known to be virtually benign. Nanoparticles
are emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources and are produced via
nanotechnology. Fast propagation of nano technologies into different industries
and consumer products is causing exponential growth of nano material
production. Hence, increasing amounts of nanoparticles reach occupational
settings and the indoor and outdoor environments, thus representing a
potentially serious hazard to human health (Nel et al, 2006; Castranova 2011).
Nanoparticles are also able to cross cell membranes, and their inter actions
with biological systems are relatively unknown (Holsapple et al. 2005).

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