The bias. They also concluded that to

The evolution and development of vertebrate lateral line electroreceptors 

In order to understand the evolution of electroreception and the mechanisms that underly electroreceptor development, this study reviewed the phylogeny of electroreception distribution. They also aimed to understand the morphology and nerve supply of electroreceptors in vertebrates. Through their reviews,  that teleost electroreception has independently evolved twice and that non-teleosts show some homology of embryonic origin, but teleost electroreceptors are not homologous with non-teleost electroreceptors. Although there were many hypothesis and studies reviewed, it seemed that future studies are needed to make any concrete conclusions on electroreceptor evolution. 

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The following example uses the APA format
 for the journal 
citation.
Plowright, R., & Laverty, T. (1984). The ecology and sociobiology of 
bumble bees. 
Annual Review of Entomology,
 51 (29), 99-175.

2. Proximate and ultimate causes of signal diversity in the electric fish Gymnotus 
This study focused on the proximate and ultimate causes of signal diversity in electric fish. From their analysis of phylogeny, taxonomy and diversity of electric organ discharges (EOD) they were able to conclude that biotic factors play the most likely role in signal diversity of electric fish. Cryptic signals were seen in areas that had an abundance of predators while ornamental signals were seen in areas of low predation and likely influenced further through female sensory bias. They also concluded that to avoid reproductive interference, signal divergence may have occurred between heterospecifics living in the same geographical area. Abiotic factors were considered unlikely causes due to the fact that signal transmission and diversity are not changed by reflection and refraction. 

3. A fish perspective: detecting flow features while moving using an artificial lateral line in steady and unsteady flow
In this study the lateral line of fish was used as model to create a system to navigate underwater vehicles. A fish’s lateral line contains neuromasts that relay information of environmental flow. Superficial neuromasts respond to flow velocities, and canal neuromasts respond to pressure differences across the openings of pores. In an attempt to replicate this sensory system and imitate a natural system, the biological distribution of the lateral line, pressure taps, or pores, were allocated over the surface of the fish head model. These pressure taps were connected to pressure sensors to give a measure of flow such as turbulence and pressure. They successfully were able to detect flow features from a “fish’s perspective”, along with showing the importance of orientation of the lateral line for vertical and horizontal sensory information.

4. Genetic and Neural Modularity Underlie the Evolution of Schooling Behavior in Threespine Sticklebacks. 
This study aimed to understand if schooling behavior is linked to genetics, vision or variation in the lateral line. Using marine sticklebacks as their strong schooling model and benthic sticklebacks for their weak schooling model, they created a hybrid to compare behavior to. They found that marine sticklebacks schooled relatively parallel to the models provided, while benthic species schooled notably less parallel. Through genetic analysis of the hybrids, they were able to clarify that there are two distinct genetic components that drive schooling behavior. They also suggested that vision plays a major role in schooling behavior, and noticed a significant difference in the lateral line of marine and benthic sticklebacks. The superficial neuromasts of each type of stickleback differed in quantity and arrangement along their bodies. In conclusion, they felt that more studies were needed on targeted regions of the lateral line to conclude that the lateral line is involved in schooling behavior.

5. The functional significance of lateral line canal morphology on the trunk of the marine teleost Xiphister atropurpureus (Stichaeidae) 
This main purpose of this study was to understand the functional significance of trunk lateral line canals of Black Prickleback fish. The researchers believed that the lateral line acts as a filter for spatial noise, which may explain the diversity in shape of the lateral line. This diversity ranges from simple/narrow in teleosts, grooved in killifishes, widened in some perches  or branched in anchovies.  To test this hypothesis they created artificial lateral lines and measured particle movements within the canal as a sphere vibrated adjacent to the canal. Unlike previous studies that only measured these movements in still water, this study involved turbulent conditions as well. In still water they found that the noise filter properties of the black prickleback’s branched lateral line canal is very similar to the filter properties of a simple lateral line canal. Although, in a turbulent environment, the researchers found that the noise filters of the prickleback’s lateral line was more efficient in detecting important stimuli over the background “noise”. 

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