So first of all, I am going to explain what it is. Cloning is the process of developing a genetically identical copy of a cell or organism. This process can happen at any time in nature when a cell replicates itself asexsually (it’s type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent). There is also such a thing as natural twins, also known as identical twins. They occur in humans and as well in other mammals. These twins are formed when a fertilized egg splits, creating two or more embryos that can carry nearly identical DNA (they do not occur that often though). Identical twins have pretty close genetic makeup, but not the same as their parents do.In today’s science we have three different types of artificial cloning (made or produced by a human rather than produced naturally): gene cloning, therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. In a typical gene cloning procedure, the gene or other DNA fragment is first inserted into a circular piece of DNA called plasmid. The insertion into the DNA is done using enzymes (highly selective catalysts, which speeds chemical reactions in our cells), and it produces a molecule of recombinant DNA (genes can be taking from different sources).When the recombinant DNA gets created it gets introduced into bacteria. It carries the plasmid and gets grown up there. As bacteria reproduce, they replicate the plasmid and pass it on to their offsprings, making copies of the DNA it contains.In some cases scientist are making many copies of DNA sequences in a plasmid so they could experiment on them. In other cases, scientists turn bacteria in to ‘factories’ to produce protein in the body. For example, human insulin gene is expressed in E. coli bacteria to make insulin, which is used by diabetics.Stem cells can build and repair the body. That is the process that they naturally do and scientists found a way to manipulate them to make stem cells to repair damaged organs and tissues. Unfortunately you can not transfer stem cells from one person to another, because the body reacts to it as foreign and it usually may trigger immune response and so, received stem cells would get rejected. But if we use the so called ‘Therapeutic cloning’ we can get those stem cells that are in need to repair the tissues, because it produces embryonic stem cells in the way that the body can accept them. And the process goes like this: Embryo would be allowed to grow for around 14 days. It’s stem cells by then would be extracted and encouraged to grow, for instance into a piece of human tissue. The end result wouldn’t be a human being, but a replacement for organ, piece of nerve tissue, or some skin.And the last one of artificial types of cloning is reproductive one. Both in reproductive cloning and in therapeutic cloning scientists are using embryos to come to the result that is wanted to be reached. The difference though is that reproductive cloning involves creating a whole animal and not just DNA of it, where in therapeutic cloning it all stays in the lab, rather than be implanted into female’s uterus where it can develop and become a living being. The most well known example is Dolly the sheep. Reproductive cloning can enable researchers to make copies of animals with the potential benefits for the fields of medicine and agriculture. Animals get genetically modified, for example Dolly the sheep that have been genetically modified to make milk that consists of human protein necessary for blood clotting. One day, scientists will come up with solution to how they can use it for people, whose blood doesn’t clot properly. One more possible use of animals that are cloned is for testing new drugs and treatment strategies. It is also possible to create clones to build populations of endangered or possibly even extinct species of animals. Although it works, it is a very inefficient technique and a lot of cloned animal embryos just simply can not develop. For example, out of 277 embryos, Dolly the sheep was the only one to live. It is not that difficult to notice, that the percentage that the embryo will develop is really small.Gene cloning is carefully managed technique that is mostly accepted today and used regularly in many lab worldwide. However, both therapeutic and reproductive cloning raise important ethical issues, especially related to the possible use of these techniques on humans. Now imagine what possibilities presents reproductive cloning. You are able to create genetically identical copy of yourself or any other person, whether person still exists or not. Religious people would state that it is not right to play God and create life that is not supposed to exist because everyone is special in it’s own way and by cloning people, their identity would get lost and they wouldn’t be special anymore. But in other think of possibilities it could provide for couples that are sterile and can not get their children, that would fulfill their dream of being parents.The same thing is for therapeutic cloning. It is offering you a possibility to cure people that are suffering from diseases and/or injuries, but with some sort of sacrificing of course. You would need to destroy human embryos for this to work. Now some argue that using this technique is wrong, no matter if it does benefit sick people. In my opinion, there is nothing wrong to use human embryos to cure people, I mean the embryo isn’t a baby (yet). You can not kill what doesn’t exist.So I’ll end up with this: As far as humanity goes, humans shouldn’t be afraid to get deeper into things like genetic engineering and cloning, because only risking and trying out new things you can make big changes that would add up and we, all people as a group would move towards making this world a Utopia.