Ref brain will send message to the

 

Ref https://www.endocrineweb.com/endocrinology/overview-hypothalamus

 

 

 

Hormones are chemicals messengers of the endocrine system
and these are synthesized by various different glands within the endocrine
structure and secreted into the bloodstream and the transmitters are released
in the neurons. The hormones and the neurotransmitters are both chemicals that
are used to send messages in the body.

An example is childbirth when the baby pushes on the cervix
the stretch receptors which are nerve cells connected to the brain will send
message to the brain then the brain produces a response by producing a hormone
from the pituitary gland called oxytocin to go into the bloodstream to the
uterus and it starts contracting. The hypothalamus is critical located in the
brain and influences nervous control of all the internal organs and also serves
as master regulator of endocrine function which has control over the release of
hormones from the pituitary gland.

Under normal circumstance the endocrine work in conjunction
with the parasympathetic nervous system to subset of the autonomic nervous
system to sustain basic bodily processes. In crisis the endocrine system works
to support the sympathetic nervous system to help to get energy necessary for
the fight and flight response. In stress the endocrine system works hand in
hand with the sympathetic nervous system to release the hormone epinephrine
(adrenaline) into the bloodstream to sustain the body’s defensive reaction
which is the fight of flight response. The sympathetic nervous works with adrenaline
to release hormone to the heart to make the muscles tense to react if
necessary.

The endocrine system function as hormones to facilitate
growth, reproduction and metabolism in the bloodstream. It consists of the
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus and adrenal glands. The pituitary gland
is responsible of stimulating growth. The parathyroid controls the phosphorus
levels to regulate calcium in the blood. The thyroid gland hormones which are
significant to metabolism and growth. The thymus glands are vital for new-born.
The adrenal glands part like the medulla generates epinephrine and
norepinephrine to helps trigger the fight or flight response.  The organ that contains endocrine tissue are
pancreas, ovaries, testis and hypothalamus. Hormones (amino and steroid) are
chemicals secreted into cellular fluid and absorbed in the bloodstream.

The nervous system consists of all the nerve cells which
includes the neurons. It is the electrochemical communication system throughout
the body and aspects is the neurotransmitters. The central nervous system is
made up of the brain and spinal cord and it is the centre of the body and hence
central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is what extends out from
the central nervous systems (CNS). The sensory and motor neurons connect the
CNS to the rest of the body. The brain is the control centre of the body and
spinal cord transmits messages from the brain out to the body and from the body
into the brain. The peripheral nervous system consists of somatic nervous
system(SNS) which controls voluntary movements and involves any level of
communication from the sensory organ and communication whilst autonomic nervous
system (ANS) controls the involuntary movement like breathing, blood flow,
heart rate, digestion. The Autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic
nervous system (which arouses in the body preparing for fight and flight to act
or react in situation to expend energy) and parasympathetic nervous system
(which keeps the body calm in stressful situations)

·       
Compare
and contrast how the endocrine system and nervous system help control our body
functions.

The role of the circulatory system is to get the oxygen
from the air from the capillaries that are in contact with the alveoli in the
Lungs to the cells around the body that needs oxygen. In opposite the waste
product which carbon dioxide is taken out through the alveoli to take out. It
also takes the glucose from the intestine which was been broken down by the
digestive system to the cells that require the glucose and also move the
nitrogenous waste product created in the cell to the kidneys to be filtered and
taken out of the body. The circulatory system links with the respiratory,
digestive and urinary system. Respiration glucose and it gets it through the digestive system. When
food is taken into the mouth it goes through a mechanical digestion ad then go
through our stomach into the intestine. It goes through a chemical digestion
and gets broken down into nutrients that are then absorbed by the capillaries
that are surrounding the intestine. The digestive system breaks down into
nutrients and salts. Faeces are taken out of the body through the rectum and
other waste product like the nitrogenous is taken out of the blood through the
urinary system which consist of the kidneys, bladder and urethra for excretion.
The urinary system also regulates the amount of water and salts in the blood
and excrete from the body.

Food is broken down by help of enzymes, acids and bile such
as amylase, protease and lipase to bring nutrients and energy for the overall
function of the body. When food enters the mouth, digestion starts by chewing
in the mouth with the help of the saliva amylase then goes down the oesophageal
sphincter into the stomach. It travels down through the small and large
intestine and then through the rectum and finally the anus. The excretory
system gets rid of the waste. The kidney, bladder, urethra and skin excrete
waste products and pass on the nutrients taking out the toxins. Respiration
take place by breathing in and out. The respiratory system, oxygen is taken in
and carbon dioxide out of the body through the alveoli in the Lungs. The
circulatory system consists of heart, blood and blood vessel in which blood is
transported.  The transportation takes
place in veins, capillaries and arteries.

The skeletal systems are made up of bones and their role is
to give structure and protect the internal organs. The skeletal system works
together with the muscular system to allow the body movement such as running,
walking and movement of other organs such as the lungs which is part of the
respiratory system. The function of the respiratory system is to obtain oxygen
from air and transport it to the blood and remove carbon dioxide. The digestive
system breaks down food to obtain nutrients for all the systems to work
properly. The oxygen and nutrients are transported to the blood and send to different
parts of the body with the help of the circulatory system and nervous system will
controls and coordinates all the actions carried out by sending and receiving
signals throughout the entire body for voluntary action like running and
involuntary action like breathing in air and blinking eyes. The different
organs that makes up each system depends and needs each other to keep the human
body alive. When one system fails it affects other systems and in general the
body get sick.

There are 11 key organs systems in the human body namely
circulatory, nervous, respiratory, endocrine, reproductive, digestive,
muscular, integumentary, skeletal, lymphatic and urinary or excretory. These
organ systems contribute to the overall function of the body such as movement,
respiration, reproduction, excretion, growth, sensitivity and nutrition. Organs
like the brain gives instruction to the heart to pump blood and the skin to
protect the body. These different organs work together to make organ system.
The organ systems are organised group of interrelated elements that work
together in the human body to perform vital functions like breathing, moving
and eating.

·       
An
explanation of how each of the key organ systems work together and contribute
to over all the functioning of the human body.

Acid-base balance: The pH scale measures the acid level
between alkalinity and acidity in the blood, kidney and lungs to help control
the balance. The lungs control pH levels by excreting carbon dioxide out of the
body.

Water Level: The body regulate the high and low level of
water in the body. Hormones help to balance the water by excretion and
retention of fluid. When the level is low the antidiuretic hormone send signal
to the kidney to retain fluid and decrease the output of urine. When there is
high level of fluid it suppresses the Aldosterone hormone and signal excretion
of urine.

Glucose Concentration: Is the amount of glucose or blood
sugar present in the bloodstream. The glucose is the source of energy in the
body. The body must maintain a proper level in the bloodstream. High and Low
glucose level can cause complications. Hormones are used to regulate the level
of glucose. When glucose is too high the pancreas release insulin and when it’s
too low the liver converts glycogen into glucose to increase glucose level.

Three examples of the homeostasis in the human body are
glucose, water and PH (Acid base balance) to regulate the level of the overall
body system.

·       
At
least 3 examples of homeostasis within the human body.

The gland that makes up the endocrine system produce
hormone that travel in the blood to other parts of the body. The importance of
the endocrine glands in homeostasis includes parathyroid, pituitary, thyroid,
thymus, and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus is the master portion of the brain
that helps to maintain internal balance of the body. During homeostasis the hypothalamus plays a significant role in the endocrine system by
sending an electrical signal to the pituitary gland and in turn it releases and
inhibit hormones that carries signal to other glands which controls hormones
throughout the body. When the hypothalamus detects rising level of hormones
from and organ it then sends signal to the pituitary gland to stop releasing
some hormones. The pituitary gland stops it which cause the organ to stop
producing its hormone. The constant balance adjustment makes the body function
normal. The hypothalamus helps regulate the body keys processes like body
temperature, heart rate and blood pressure, sleep cycles and fluid balance.

·       
An
explanation of how the endocrine system is involved in homeostasis.

When homeostasis fails the body cannot function. One
example is if the water level in the body is too high you can become
hyper-dehydrated and when it is too low you become dehydrated. 

receptors detects
temperature low than normal, the heat impulses send signal to the skin then the
hair effector muscles and sweat glands decrease heat loss and increase heat
production. When the receptors detect high temperature, they send signal to the
hair erectors muscles relax and flatten the hair on the skin. The sweat glands
will then produce sweat then it makes the body to lose heat. The sweat will
evaporate from the skin and makes the skin to cool down which is the positive
feedback to maintain homeostasis.

 To maintain
homeostasis, the body needs body fluid or internal environment. The skin
creates a barrier separating internal from external. Cells needs nutrients and
oxygen to be alive, lungs to pump oxygen, kidney to get rid of waste, muscles
to keep constant temperature and finally need food and digestive system to
regulate good homeostasis conditions. Lack of balance leads to stress and
unhappy in the body.

All the systems in the body plays an important role to the negative and positive loop.
When changes occur the endocrine, nervous, cardiovascular and other systems will
work together to regain the balance.

 When the receptor
detects a change in the system which could be either increase or decrease which
affects the body. This process is called negative or positive feedback.
Positive feedback increases the change and negative feedback reverses the
change. The effectors bring a change which returns the body rate to normal.

Homeostasis is important to maintain human body temperature
in every healthy at 370c. The temperature can be controlled by high
or low feedbacks. The human body needs to maintain a certain range of nutrients
in the bloodstream such as water, glucose, sodium and other elements.
Homeostasis makes sure there is homeostatic conditions set point so that there
is not too high glucose or cholesterol levels or too low levels of certain
vitamins or minerals. Homeostasis needs a set point which is a normal range. The
body tries to stay within the normal range for systolic is 80-120 so
homeostasis is there to keep the body’s systolic blood pressure in this range
or set point. When someone’s systolic blood pressure changes to 140 which seem
unhealthy and risky for some diseases, the body will feel to maintain balance needed
which will make homeostasis adjust to the change and pump blood harder. When
the detectors in the skin and the internal organ detect high or low temperature
a signal will be to the hypothalamus in the brain to take appropriate action to
maintain homeostasis.

Cells depend on the body environment to live and function.
Homeostasis keeps the body environment under control and keeps the conditions
right for cells to live and function. Without the right body conditions certain
processes like osmosis and proteins will not function properly. Cells require
the right environment to thrive and they need nutrients, oxygen and waste
product to be removed. If homeostasis is not present certain process cannot
function.

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable environment
inside the human body particularly to ensures the balance of temperature, breathing
rate, blood glucose, blood pressure, water level, oxygen and pH.

·       
 The importance of homeostasis within the human
body.