Radar 3,000 German waring aircraft, and it’s

Radar
and sonar development has had a very significant impact on the outcome of the
second world war in the United States. These technological advances were a
giant help in the Allied victory in World War II, due to both advancements
featuring techniques for detecting both the location and speed of axis aircraft
or submarines. In example, during the Battle of Britain, which resulted in a
British victory, radar played a very critical role in detecting aerial enemies
for both the British and America, and helped both defeat the Germans, who
heavily outnumbered the allies, who only had 800 aircraft to fight the battle.
Compare this to Hitler’s then 3,000 German waring aircraft, and it’s easy to
spot reason for German optimism during this battle. The British-American
success in this battle can be attributed to a long strip of radar stations that
had been built along the southern and eastern coasts of Britain in 1939, which
enabled the allies to determine valuable information on enemy aircraft
including direction, altitude, and speed while they were up to 60 miles away,
and used all this new information to help them emerge victorious in a
heavily-outnumbered battle.

            The use of sonar during World War
Two was directed against Hitler and his large fleet of German submarines by the
allied powers. After their humiliating defeat in the Battle of Britain, Germany
began to use submarines, or “U-Boats” to cut off American shipments of
materials to Britain, which were a necessity to their success and longevity in
the war. These materials included vitals such as medical supplies and food, and
German interference greatly angered the British and Americans. Following the
development of sonar, the American and British surface fleet easily could
detect the location of these submarines by finding their depth and direction,
and used this information to destroy them.

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The
use and applicability of these technologies are actually very similar. Both can
easily locate both axis ships and planes at a distance. This is achieved by
either the sonar or radar device sending out invisible waves that hit the
surface of the ship or plane, bounce off the side, and boomerang back to a
special wave detector.  These waves, once
registered by the detector, provide information such as the direction and location
of the enemy, be it ship or plane, as well as their velocity or depth. Both
radar waves and sonar waves have the same properties of all waves. These
properties include velocity, frequency, and wavelength. The detector then
registers changes in wavelength due to the motion of the wave after it meets an
enemy craft. Ultimately, radar handles velocity while sonar handles depth.

            Before understanding the practical
use of both radar and sonar during World War 2, and its large role in
supporting American forces and giving them success after success in numerous
battles, its important to comprehend the technology behind both.

            Sonar, like radar, makes use of
certain sound waves to find distant objects, most of which are underwater
craft.  These certain waves are called
‘radio waves,’ and they contain very similar properties to light waves, only
differing in wavelength and frequency. This use of sonar is evident in many
animals, but the best example of the sonar used in World War Two is the
dolphin, which uses sound waves projected by its voice to find the location of
objects at a distance. This type of location identification by sound waves is
referred to as ‘echolocation.’  Sound
waves, such as those produced by both sonar devices and dolphins alike, are
sometimes referred to as compression waves, and are produced by vibrating
objects (in this case, the dolphin’s vocals or a sonar device). In example, vibrating
items cause air molecules to move closer together.  When an object vibrates further away from the
item in question, the reverse happens, meaning these compressed waves move
around in space, and our tools can detect the direction that these compressed
waves are moving toward.  When a compression
wave strikes another object, a reflected wave is identified a result.  Radar, like sonar, also uses radio waves to
detect distant objects.

After
learning about the effects and works of both radar and sonar, its very easy to
see just how both were so vital to the allied victory during World War II. The
development of these technologies heavily impacted the strategies used by both
sides during the war. The information gathered by radar and sonar forced German
forces to switch up their strategies in their attacks of American forces. On
top of being highly complex, however, sonar and radar are simply ways of
obtaining information on the enemy, and are both simple in the ways that they
work while also being highly adaptable. During the battles of World War I,
aircraft remained fairly unimportant in the grand scheme of things, as crafts
were used purely for reconnaissance. However, as aircraft and technology
evolved, these crafts began to increase in importance in fundamental aspects,
such as their magnificent new sizes, their very large new range of attacks
available, and their very fast new speeds. All of this resulted in a new way in
which warfare would be conducted during the 1920s, as it became clear that
aircraft would soon become major weapons worldwide. Bombing from these new
aircrafts soon became a global concern. These new fleets of airplanes had the
ability to carry new, enormous, and destructive bombs, and there was a global
lack of defense against aircraft attacks, meaning enemy aircraft could very
easily reach a nation’s cities, resulting in a full-on developmental offense
race from each country. This newfound heavy threat of offensive city-bombing
sparked American interest in a helpful technology that had been idealized and
invented long ago, yet lacked proper development past its early
stages—defensive radar. In 1904, German invention attracted very little
interest from the public, yet, in the late 1930s, the threat of bombing
reinvigorated a new wave of work on this then-lucrative technology, causing
many of the major players in World War II to independently develop their own
forms of radar to use within the war. Even before the outbreak of war in the
United States, scientists and researchers at MIT had developed an improved form
of American radar.

During
the entire course of World War II, the outcome of battles was always determined
by whichever side was first to spot the enemy, be it an enemy submarine, an
enemy plane, or an enemy ship. The radar during the era of World War II relied
heavily on new technology developed by scientists as a way of improving the already
existing ‘beta’ form of modern radar and sonar. This includes the use of a newly-invented
semiconductor crystal, called a rectifier. This small item was used to
translate the signal received by radio waves bouncing off the enemy into a
current necessary for visuals to be provided. However, a major problem with
these receiving signals was that they frequently couldn’t handle the speed of a
rapidly changing radar signal, resulting in the visualization burning out more
times than not. This would not be improved and changed until later, much after
World War II.          

This
newly-discovered then-futuristic technology of radio-wave-based tracking was
very frequently used by the Allied powers during World War II, and was even
eventually used by the Axis powers once their researching capabilities
improved. Near the start of the war in September 1939, in example, Great
Britain had radar systems that were very functional. Even Germany had some form
of the technology.

In
the United States, however, the technology was demonstrated as early as December
1934, as an alternative form of futuristic warfare, even though most
significant advancements occurred when war with the axis powers became more likely.
It was during this time that the U.S. actually recognized how much power was in
held in the development of this new form of technology, and became much more
fascinated and intrigued in improving it. Thus, began the crazed rush of development
of both systems for land and sea. These new technologies first saw practical
wartime use on the American side by the U.S. Navy in early 1940, as a form of
sonar was used. It was here that the acronym, RADAR, was coined, standing for ‘Radio
Detection and Ranging.’ Not soon after, the U.S. Army began to apply the
technology to their wartime routine, and used a form of radar to detect the
motion of nearby enemies.

As
stated above, however, while significant research was contributed toward the
technology, and the benefits as a result of the use of radio spectrum for
echolocation were known, the transmitters that would be used for generating
microwave signals, as well as broadcasting this information on a screen. were widely
unavailable. It was a result of this that the earlier radar systems used during
this era operated at much lower frequencies than we see in modern radar and
sonar.

At
first, radars were generally equipped with devices used to display light
visuals, but these operational visual devices were low-quality at first. Later on
during the war, however, the creation of more operationally useful devices occurred,
such as the founding of the “PPI,” or the Plan-Position-Indicator. This tool is
very useful in the mechanization of radar display patterns and visualization on
a screen, as its use is that a circular display is broadcasted on a screen, showing
a beam, which shows a visual rotation of the radar antenna, marking the
position of nearby enemies with blips on the screen each rotation of the
antenna. This is the so-called radar that the average person is familiar with,
and the kind that you might see in movies depicting this technology.

PPI
essentially works like a lab oscilloscope display. This means that it can be
broadcasted visually on a small screen with LEDs, which are normally a light
green, and easily used for the identification of enemy location. However,
developed radar works a bit different than the well-known oscilloscope. Due to
the rotation and active repositioning of both the radar antennae and the enemy,
a map-like display is used to visualize enemy location, as this map can provide
the reader with an easy-to-read visual, complete with information such as depth
or altitude. This ‘map’ exhibited by the PPI shows the location of the craft of
which it is installed at the center, using the map position of detected targets
to mark them with small dots of light wired through the LEDs. The PPI helped
the allied powers greatly throughout the war, because it eliminated the need
for a complex system to track and find enemies, and instead provided craft operators
with an easy-to-read alternative to quickly finding enemy positioning. Essentially,
the development of the PPI eliminated the need for drivers to both calculate
and check directions on a map.

Militarily, during World
War II, there were two different types of radar used against the axis forces. These
included detective radar, as well as fire control radar. Each type of use for radar
was very helpful in its own way during the war

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