Plant alternative medicine and natural therapies (Lis-Balchin

Plant oils and extracts have been used for a wide variety of
purposes for many thousands of years (Jones 1996). The superposes
vary from the use of rosewood and cedar wood in perfumery, to
flavoring drinks with lime, fennel or juniper berry oil (Lawless 1995),
and the application of lemongrass oil for the preservation of stored food
crops (Mishra and Dubey 1994) . In particular, the antimicrobial
activity of plant oils has formed the basis of many applications,
including raw and processed food preservation, pharmaceuticals,
alternative medicine and natural therapies (Lis-Balchin and Deans
1997) .While some of the oils used on the basis of their reputed
antimicrobial properties have well documented in vitro activity, there
are few published data for many others (Deans and Ritchie 1987 and
Hili et al. 1997). While these data are useful, the reports are not directly
comparable due to methodological differences such as choice of plant
extract(s), test micro-organism(s) and antimicrobial test method
(Janssen et al. 1987) . Nigella sativa Linn. (family Ranunculaceae),
commonly known as black seed or black cumm in, is an annual plant
that has been traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent (Pai, et al.
2004) , Arabian countries (Sayed,1980) and Europe (Lautenbacher,
1997) for culinary and medicinal purposes as a natural remedy for a
number of illnesses and conditions that include asthma, hypertension,
diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever,
dizziness and influenza. They are also used in food as a spice and a
condiment. Streptococcus spp. has been implicated as primary
causative agents of dental caries (Hamada, et al.1984). Especially,
Strept. mutans and Strept. sobrinus are known as the cariogenic oral
bacteria (Loesche, 1986 ) .Various pharmacological tests have been
carried out to investigate different compounds in black cumin seeds.
Phytochemical studies of the seeds have revealed the presence of
volatile oil(1.5%), fixed oil (37.5%), nigellin, melanthin, arabic acid,
carvene,carvone, cymene (Bourgou et al 2010) , thymohydroquinone
and thymoquinone (Houghton, et al 1995). GC–MS helped to deepen
our knowledge about these compounds and revealed the new ones:
thymoquinone (27.8–57.0%),q-cymene (7.1–15.5%), carvacrol (5.8–
11.6%), t-anethole (0.25–2.3%), 4-terpineol (2.0–6.6%) and longifoline
(1.0–8.0%) (Burits and Bucar, 2000). Recently, many biological
activities of N. sativa seeds have been reported, including: antibacterial
(Ferdous and Islam,1992),antitumour (Worthen et al. , 1998), diuretic
and hypotensive (Zaoui et al., 2000). The seeds and its oil has a very
low degree of toxicity (Ali and Blunden, 2003).Thymoquinone was the
bioactive constituent of the volatile oil of black seed (Bourgou et al.
2010) . It has been also shown to have promising antitumour effects in
animal models (Badary and Gamal El-Din, 2001) and to increase the
antitumor effects of if osamide. Thymoquinone have antibacterial
activity which could be potentiated by antibiotics especially in case of
S. aureus (Halawani, 2009). It has been reported that thymoquinone has
anti-invasive activities in C26 colorectal cancer cells, in addition to a
therapeutic role against DMH-induced colon cancer when administered
at the initiation or post-initiation phases (Badary,l. et al 1999).
Moreover, thymoquinone was shown to reduce cisplatin-induced
nephrotoxicity without affecting its antitumour activity (Badary et al.,
1997). It exerts also anti-oxidant effects and inhibits inflammation in
animalmodels and cell culture systems (Mansour, l. et al. 2002). Due to
the variability in chemical and aroma composition, marjoram plants are
widely used to flavor food products and alcoholic beverages. They are
also used traditionally for their pharmacological properties, including
antibacterial activities (Sari et al 2006). Satureja hortensis L.,
(Lamiaceae), commonly called summer savory is a well-known
aromatic and medicinal plant widely distributed in the Anatolia region
of Turkey. Leaves, flowers, and stems of summer savory are frequently
used as tea or additives in commercial spice mixtures for many foods to
of fearsome and flavor (Gulluce t et al. 2003). There are several studies
dealing with the anti yeast effects of marjoram essential oils on
pathogenic yeast species (Sahin et al 2003,Arici et al 2005 and AbuAl-Basal
2009). For this purpose, aims to determine the effect of active Oils
derived from Nigella sativa and Marjoram plants in local markets have attiring in
Riyadha against the activity of danger bacteria , fungi and yeast effect of life.


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