p.p1 – It is also called node

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: justify; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 15.0px} p.p3 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p4 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 10.0px ‘Times New Roman’; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 11.0px} p.p5 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: justify; font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 15.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none}

Jamming – It is caused due to interference with the radio frequencies of the network’s devices which is an attack on the availability of the sensor network. It is different from normal radio propagation in the way that it is unwanted and disruptive, thus resulting in denial-of-service conditions.

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Tampering – It is also called node capturing in which a node is compromised, it is easy to perform and is pretty harmful. Tampering is physically modifying and destroying sensors nodes.

Collision – It is caused in data link layer that handles neighbour-to-neighbour communication along with channel arbitration. Entire packet can be disrupted if an adversary is able to generate collisions of even part of a transmission, CRC mismatch and possibly require retransmission can be caused by a single bit error.

Exhaustion – Exhaustion of a network’s battery power can be induced by an interrogation attack. A compromised node could repeatedly send thus consuming the battery power more than required.

Hello flood attack – It is caused when an attacker with high transmission power can send or replay hello packets which are used for neighbour discovery. In this way, attacker creates an illusion of being a neighbour to other nodes and underlying routing protocol can be disrupted which facilitate further types of attacks.

Wormhole attack – It is caused due to formation of a low-latency link that is formed so that packets can travel from one to the other end faster than normally via a multi-hop route. The wormhole attack is a threat against the routing protocol and is challenging to detect and prevent. In this type of attack, an adversary can convince the distant nodes that are only one or two hops away through the wormhole causing confusion in the network routing mechanisms.

Sybil attack – It is caused when an attacker uses a malicious device to create a large number of entities in order to gain influence in the network traffic. The ID of these malicious nodes can be the result due to fake network additions or duplication of existing legitimate identities. The sybil attack usually targets fault tolerant schemes including distributed storage, topology maintenance, and multi-hop routing.

Sinkhole attack – It is caused when an attacker prevents the base station of the network from obtaining complete and accurate sensing data, thus resulting in a serious threat to higher-layer applications. By Sinkhole attack, attacker can attract nearly all the traffic from a specific area. Sinkhole attacks work in the way by making malicious node look especially attractive to other surrounding nodes with respect to routing protocols underling routing algorithm.

Flooding attack – It is a Denial of Service (DoS) attack designed to bring a network or service down by flooding it with large amounts of traffic. Flood attacks usually occur when a network or service becomes weighed down with packets, thus initiating incomplete connection requests that it cannot, longer process genuine connection requests. By flooding a server with connections that cannot be completed, flood attack eventually fills the servers memory buffer and once this buffer is full, no further connections can be made, and thus resulting in a Denial of Service.

Denial-of-Service(DoS)–This attack is usually referred as intended attack of opponent for the purpose of destroying or destructing the sensor network. DoS attack may result in limiting or eliminating the sensor network functionality than expected. DoS attack may occur at any layer of OSI layers of WSN. DoS penetrates the efficiency of targeted networks by affecting its associated protocols by consuming the resources, destructing or altering the infrastructure configuration, and physically destroying the network components.

Cloning attack – It is caused when adversaries may easily capture and compromise sensors nodes and deploy unlimited number of clones in the sensor network of the compromised nodes. As these clones have legitimate access to the sensor network (i.e. legitimate IDs, keys, other security credentials, etc.), they can easily participate in the sensor network operations in the same way as a legitimate node resulting in a large variety of insider attacks, or even taking over the entire network. If these clones in the sensor network are left undetected, the sensor network is unshielded to attackers, thus extremely vulnerable. That is why clone attackers are severely destructive. Effective and efficient solutions are required for clone attack detection to limit their damage.

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