K the second layer in the policy

K to 12 Program

 

               As of today, more than 140
countries offer or are in transition to K-12 education system (Kindergarten to
Grade 12). The program has become the international norm for pre tertiary
education because of the multiple of research emphasizing the long-term
learning and social benefits of school readiness programs. The 12 years of
primary and secondary schooling acquire the knowledge and skills sets necessary
for 21st century university education, post secondary training, or decent work.

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              The reformation of the national
education to K–12 brings intensive need of resource such as consuming
technical, financial, and political resources. Thus, understanding the legal,
regulatory, and policy environment helps anticipate bottlenecks and chart a
pathway to implementation. There are three layers of the framework are
foundational, structural, and complementary policies (Sarvi et. al, 2015)

 

              Foundational policies. These are found in national (provincial in
Ontario) development plans and define the core educational aspirations, provide
the rationale for transitioning to a K–12 structure, describe the major human
resource development agenda, and present the K–12 goals as they align with the
respective development agendas. For labor-exporting countries (Philippines and
Poland) there is the desire for trade and professional credentials to be
accepted in destination countries, and for labor-importing countries (Mongolia)
there is the desire to replace highly skilled imported professionals with
locals whose training and qualifications are just as good. For countries where
secondary school graduates might wish to attend foreign universities, there is
the need for their education credentials to be judged as equivalent (Sarvi et. al,
2015).

 

              Structural policies. These are the second layer in the policy
framework. Most case jurisdictions have restructured to a primary and secondary
configuration, with kindergarten included as part of the education system, and
secondary education divided into lower and upper levels. In the literature on
national education plans there are a number of conceptual descriptors that are
often used interchangeably and aligned with the structure of the education
system (Sarvi et. al, 2015).

 

              Complementary policies. These comprise issues that may be directly
or indirectly related to K–12 reform but are necessary for successful
implementation of the reform. Authority and responsibility for preparing
complementary policies depend upon the governance system in each jurisdiction.
For example, in Turkey the curriculum is developed centrally, while in Canada
curriculum development is the responsibility of the provinces and school boards
(Sarvi et. al, 2015).

 

 K to 12 Program in the Philippines

 

               In the Philippines, the
enhancement of the basic education program known as the Republic Act No. 10533
series 2012 was signed by one of the major thrusts of former President Benigno
Aquino’s government on May 15, 2013. The law was enforced because the
Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of only three countries
worldwide with a 10-year pre-university cycle.
The Philippine government intends to improve the quality of the high school
graduates to become more competitive in the global business arena and to bring
more success that would contribute towards building the nation and be part with
the rest of the world.

 

               The Philippines is a low middle
income country. Following decades of decline, an ambitious school education
reform, including transition to a K–12 system, was initiated with the potential
to reverse decline and create a high-performing and inclusive school education
system. Simultaneously, an intensive program was launched to bridge input
deficits in infrastructure and teachers that had accumulated to a point where
confidence in the government to deliver quality public education was low. The
K–12 reform entails extension of compulsory education to include kindergarten
and a brand-new level of education, grades 11 and 12. This upper secondary
school (USS) program incorporates many “next generation” features such as
contextualized learning for core and elective subjects, dual vocational
education, and inclusion of cognitive and non cognitive competences in the
curriculum alongside content. Public-private partnerships in education service
delivery will increase the diversity of USS programs. Halfway through rollout,
limited absorptive capacity raises concerns about achieving reform milestones
within its scheduled timeframe (Sarvi et. al, 2015).

 

               The implementation of the
universal kindergarten began in SY 2011-2012, followed by the new curriculum
for Grade 7 in SY 2012-2013. This was primarily aimed to strengthen the
Philippine basic education curriculum and increase the number of years of basic
education. The new program covers Kindergarten plus 12 years of basic
education. Under this program a student will be required to undergo
kindergarten, six years of elementary, four years of junior high school and two
years of Senior High School. The additional two years in senior high school was
targeted to prepare students for tertiary education, middle level skills
development, entrepreneurship, and global employment.

 

 

Senior High School (SHS) Program

 

               The additional two years of
senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired
academic skills and competencies and will equip learners with skills that will
better prepare them for the future, whether it be for employment,
entrepreneurship, skills development (further Tech-Voc training), and higher
education or college. The Senior High School Curriculum was developed in line
with the curriculum of the Commission of Higher Education (CHED) to ensure that
by the time the students graduate from Senior High School, they will have the
standard knowledge, skills, and competencies needed to go to college.

 

               The Senior High School (SHS)
covers eight (8) learning areas as part of its core curriculum, and adds
specific tracks (similar to college courses) based on four (4) disciplines: (1)
Academic (which includes Business, Science & Engineering, Humanities &
Social Science, and a General Academic strand) (2) Technical Vocational
Livelihood (with highly specialized subjects with TESDA qualifications) (3)
Sports (4) Arts & Design. The development of tracks based on different competencies
and/or student interest is an integral component of the program. These
tracks-based competencies are developed to meet the country’s varied human
capital requirements, and to prepare students for productive endeavor.

 

               SHS Students may pick a track based
on how he or she will want to proceed after high school graduation. However,
students first undergo assessments to determine their strengths and interests.
These will include an aptitude test, a career assessment exam, and an
occupational interest inventory for high schools. Career advocacy activities
will also be conducted to help guide students in choosing their specialization
or track. Specializations or tracks to be offered will be distributed according
to the resources available in the area, the needs and interests of most
students, and the opportunities and demands of the community. Existing public
and private schools, including colleges, universities and technical
institutions may offer Senior High School. There may also be stand-alone Senior
High Schools established by DepEd or private organizations. According to law,
beginning SY 2016-2017, it is mandatory that students must go through Grades 11
and 12 to graduate from High School.

               The target of DepEd is to put in
place the necessary infrastructure and other necessary arrangements needed to
provide Senior High School (SHS) education by SY 2016-2017 when the first batch
of senior high schools will start. The nationwide rollout of senior high school
impacts those who are working in the higher education sector since students go
through two more years of high school instead of going straight to college,
resulting in low enrollment in colleges and universities nationwide. This makes
the private higher education sector especially vulnerable to loss of revenue,
since they depend almost entirely on tuition for salary of their personnel and
operating expenses of the schools. Low enrollment means low teaching loads, and
low salaries for faculty, resulting in a diminished income, or loss of jobs.
CHED has conducted studies that project the anticipated job losses during the
transition period, and has partnered with DepEd and DOLE to put programs in
place to ensure that personnel in the higher education sector are not only
taken care of during the transition, but that this challenge is transformed
into an opportunity to upgrade higher education in the country.

 

Work Immersion Process

 

               Between 1995 and 1999, a number
of researchers and national committees set to work on efforts to address
scheduling and retention issues in secondary as well as higher education (Boyer
Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University, 1998;
Kojaku, Nunez, & Malizio, 1998; Muraskin, 1998; U.S. Department of
Education, 2001). As a result, there was a large push for immersion scheduling
in both secondary and higher education (Lawerence & McPherson, 2000). The
immersion course is defined as an educational schedule, in which students
experience one course at a time by engaging in learning activities within
extended blocks of time (Petrowsky, 1996; van Scyoc & Gleason, 1993). However,
with this push came a backlash by many others who claimed that immersive
courses are less effective than traditional formats (e.g., Daniel, 2000; Scott,
2003).

 

               The term “immersion
education” was born and came to prominence in Canada during the 1960s. Its
basic theories and principles evolved from the popular theories of language
acquisition and language learning. The immersion teaching mode is defined as
the delivery of the second language curriculum in an immersed second language
(SL) learning environment to learners who share the same first language. In
this mode, the learners are “immersed” in the SL environment for all
or part of the time and only the second language is allowed in the learning
process. In this mode, the SL not only serves as the content of teaching but
also a tool for language teaching and acquisition.

 

               According to statistics of the
early nineties, as many as 30 million students have participated in immersion
programs in various forms in Canada. Later, China, the United States and many
other countries followed the same model and began their own practice. However,
this teaching mode has obvious limitation: it is mainly designed for primary
and secondary school students. Whether the principle of immersion teaching can
be applied to adults or foreign language teaching in institutions of higher
learning draws the attention of many language instructors and learners.

 

               The University of Utah conducted
a similar experiment in immersion education in 1985-1986 (Sternfield, 1989).
The subject of the experiment is one-year students who are native English
speakers and major in Spanish. These students took Latin American Studies
course for one-year. The course was taught entirely in Spain and the teaching
mainly comprised Latin American history, geography, current events and so on.
Language skill was no longer the content of teaching and all teaching materials
were from up-to-date sources. Their experimental results are consistent with
those of the Canadian immersion teaching model—the Spanish level of these
students is either higher or not lower than that of those Spanish-speaking
students under the traditional teaching model.

 

               Although immersion scheduling
has a history of selective use in higher education and is becoming increasingly
popular in some universities (Davies, 2006), some studies have demonstrated
that immersion scheduling may increase college retention (e.g., Soldner, Lee,
& Duby, 2000), academic self-concept (e.g., Richmond & Krank, 2007),
and critical thinking (Burton & Nesbit, 2008; Jonas, Weimer, & Herzer,
2004; Mims, 1983; Richmond & Krank, 2007), the researchers thought it is
important to investigate the effects mandatory work immersion for Senior High
School to the employment opportunities of Pasay City National Science High
School Grade 12 students (STEM).

 

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