INTRODUCTION is also recommended by previous researches

INTRODUCTION

            Sports and recreational
activities have been a popular extracurricular activity for adolescents for how
many years. According to Paula (2017), youths that are involved in sports and
recreational activities have positive effects in psychology and also increased
both emotional and behavioral well-being. In addition, they also develop higher
self-esteem and confidence which they acquire in actively participating in
sports. “They also lead to less involvement in risky and destructive behavior
patterns,” Paula said. Involvement in sport activities can help the adolescents
to have a higher level of social and leadership skills based from the kind of
sports they play.

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However, there are some variables or factors
that influence the development of sports and recreational activities. On the
research that will be conducted, the following will be measured in order to
identify the effect of the factors: (1) participation in sport and recreational
activity; (2) type of sport and recreational activities (3) barriers and
influences to sport and recreational activity (4) parental influences; (5)
facility used; (6) lifestyle behaviours and recreational activity and; (7)
sedentary behaviours and sport and recreational activity including the
demographic variables such as age, gender and history related to sports. It is
proven that psychological attributes toward sports are also affected by the
demographic variables of the participants which will be added to the findings
of this current research (Ampofo-Boaleng, Barnabas & Yeng, 2013). It is
also recommended by previous researches related to sports that including
demographic variables will be appropriate to further researches. Moreover,
based from the article of World Owl (n.d.), friends, gender, culture/ethnicity
and family are the most influential to the participation of adolescents in
sports.

Based from the research of Gorman
(2010) in Eastern Tennessee, the effect of athletic participation on academic
performances of athletes and non-athletes were compared in terms of female
and male senior students. Moreover, the involvement of teachers, school and
community were included in the findings. It was stated on the conclusion that
there is a positive effect of participation in any kind of sports, school
system in conducting sports and recreational activities, parental involvement
and academic performances to sports that the participants played. Adolescents
whose parents both play/ed and active in sports and recreation has large
influences than athletes who’s one or neither of the parents that play/ed in
sports.

Likewise, another research made by
Delaney (2013) in Waterford City found out that most of the participants stated
that “facilities are expensive, have many restrictions and are at poor standards
which have a negative effect on the performances of students in sports. This is
supported by the research of Rozita, Norzana, Khairulzaman and Norlizah
(2014) which found that “facility ambience, operation quality, and staff
competency has a relation on customer satisfaction and behaviour intentions.”
Although, based on the collected data of Kabugne (2012) in Mombasa Country,
“Inadequate facilities and equipment is a factor influencing success in
performances of sport activities among the youth in Mombasa.” The reason behind
this is that the participants avoid these problems getting their way in
successful sports activities. However, they stated that having facility may
help and prevent time consuming on development in successful sports.

Furthermore, a research done by Chen,
Synder and Magner (2010) examined that three categories which are the athletic
identity (AI), sport commitment (SC), and effects on athletic involvement(EAI)
as series of factor analysis. It is concluded that there is an effect on
athlete’s participation and experience in sports to the responses from the three
categories (“Personal role, Importance of sports, Sport commitment, Personal
attribute, core benefits, Social relationship, and special behaviours”).
Moreover, participants that joined the team-type of sports developed in
personal attribute, personal roles, core benefits, social relationships and
special behavior. These approaches were used to measure the maintainability
 of the athletes in sports and it were also linked to  health
benefits, increase of sport participation, athletic performances, self-esteem,
development of social relationships and confidence based from the research of
Horton and Mack (2001).   

Barriers such as lack of finances,
facilities and equipment are the possible variables that interrupt in producing
world-rate participants. Stress is also related or connected to barriers
and issues in performances of sports (DiBartolo & Shafter, 2002). Based
from the research of Abedalhafiza, Altahaynehb & Al-Haliqc (2010), stress
of “injury and illness”,”pressure of  competition”,”conflict with the
coach, referee and spectators” are the major reasons of not performing well.
The reasons also suggest that using avoidance and approach styles prevents them
from these barriers. However, research found out that there is a negative
significant correlation between approach and avoidance coping style. Some
coaches and psychologist stated that avoiding this situation or engaging in
wishful thinking or luck does not assist the participants at high levels of
sports.   

Sports and recreational activities
are two of the challenges keeping teenagers physically active in the society.
The purpose of this research is to show the place of sports and recreational 

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