Introduction head of digital, Chris Popple says

Introduction

Since the industrial revolution, businesses have
been using technology to maximize efficiency and productivity while
simultaneously reducing costs. With the recent increase in artificial
intelligence, what does this development mean to the workforce and will AI take
human jobs? (Nizri, 2017) This has caused many discussions around the world
about the necessity and the impact this will have on the business environment. Artificial
intelligence is one of the biggest developments of the present day not only in
scientific areas but within business organisations as well. The term AI is
frequently applied to the project of developing systems which have the
intellectual characteristic of humans, such as the ability of reason,
understanding meanings, or the power to learn from previous experiences.
(Encyclopedia Britannica, 2018) This report aims to look at whether artificial
intelligence will take human jobs and what ethical frameworks will be most
relevant in the upcoming AI era.

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Artificial
intelligence in action.

 A number
of technology companies and their vendors are now offering APIs and frameworks
that allow businesses to create their own intelligent services. Companies such
as; the Royal Bank of Scotland announced the launch of Luvo their natural
language processing AI bot which helps answer RBS, Natwest and Ulster bank
customer questions and can complete simple banking tasks like money transfers. If
the system is unable to find the correct answer it will automatically pass the
customer over to a member of staff. Other banks have started to create similar
virtual assistants. RBS’ head of digital, Chris Popple says that the aim is to
“make digital customer support as powerful as face-to-face”. (Carey, 2017)
However, when you enter a store you have the ability to pick the person you
want to talk to for help, while pretending that AI systems are humans is
impersonal and they lack emotions such as empathy. Although, younger
generations are more open and happy when communicating with a machine and do
not feel it to be as impersonal. (Phys.org, 2016) By deploying the right AI
technology, businesses may gain the ability to; save time and money by
automating routine processes and tasks, while increasing productivity and
operational effectiveness, allows organisations to make faster business
decisions based on outputs from cognitive technologies. (nibusinessinfo.co.uk,
2018) Nonetheless, with these businesses looking at increasing productivity by
using AI, what ethical frameworks will be relevant in the upcoming AI era?

What is Marxism?

Marxism is a
theory on ethics that is based upon the political and economic theories of Karl
Marx that may become apparent in the upcoming era. He stated that under
capitalism society it gives the shareholders the ability to operate their
companies effectively thus giving them an incentive to maximize the profit. They
elect a board of directors that manages the company. This style means that they
control the factors of production and they derive their income from their
ownership. While, the working class own only their physical capacity to work in
which they have only the ability to sell their own labour. The workers are paid
the minimum wage or salary in order to support their families. The workers are
alienated because they have no control over the labour or product which they
produce. However the capitalists sell the products produced by the workers at a
proportional value as related to the labour involved. The surplus value however
is split by the owners and shareholders. (Crane and Matten, 2016) Karl Marx
talks about the workers revolting and a communist or socialist movement
starting, in which the workers own the organisations and everyone gets an equal
proportion of the profits.

Will
Artificial Intelligence take our jobs?

So will
artificial intelligence take human jobs, well this would be the most likely
outcome with the introduction of AI it has been predicted that within the next
20 years Autonomous vehicles will be taking the jobs from haulage drivers,
(McRae, 2017) however by 2030 AI will have taken around a third of British jobs
that’s roughly 15 million, (McGoogan, 2017) while it is predicted that in 45
years AI will be capable of doing about 85% of jobs and tasks humans are
capable of doing. Humans should expect a significant impact to particular
fields of industry within the next 15 years. (McRae, 2017) With these
predictions there is some room for movement but it does seem highly likely that
AI will take at least some of the human jobs in the next 20 years, the majority
of these job loses will be in manual and routine tasks as they will be more
susceptible to automation, while social skills and creative roles are going to
be more protected. That being said, no industry will be entirely immune from
future advances in robotics and AI. (McGoogan, 2017)  With this information it would seem like a
Marxism approach to the future would seem like the ideal approach as a
capitalist society would not be able to deal with the huge loss of jobs that
are predicted.

What are
the effects?

With the
upcoming AI era with automation taking many workers jobs it might be possible
that this theory of ethics may become more apparent. This is due to the workers
losing their jobs and in turn creating massive unemployment at which point
governments will have to step in and take control of the organisations and
begin with a communist society. (Marx, 2001) 
Or the governments could implement higher taxes on the businesses to
help create adequate social benefit funds. In particularly this seems like a
possible approach. (Fisher and Lovell, 2006) The Marxism ethical approach to
the future could lead to the start of a socialist approach to businesses, as
with the probability of humans losing jobs to AI the humans would revolt and
businesses would have to adapt to a communist society as without doing so the
world would cease to function as without the ability to sell their labour to
provide for themselves and their families the workers would not be able to buy
the products that the organisations are selling, without putting a huge tax on
the businesses to provide adequate income benefits to the majority of the
people. (Marx, 2001) However, at some point would there be a time when
artificial intelligence starts to feel like the workers in the start of the
case and this circle motion of Capitalism to Communism could start up again,
this would be unlikely but may need to be addressed and looked into in the
coming years. (McDonald, 2015)

Could
Utilitarianism also help?

The
Utilitarianism framework may also be implemented alongside Marxism because this
theory insists that the course of action must be the one that promotes the
greatest utility for the greatest number of people, with the rightness of the
action is determined by the possible outcomes. (Fisher and Lovell, 2006) So if
the organisations decided to create training and education for their workers
and help create a better life for them by giving them the chance to move into
different sectors within the organisation that requires human skills or even in
monitoring and repairing AI systems. This being said if the workforce was re
trained and given the ability to go on and study new skills they may be able to
help grow the implementation of AI, as educating the people on IT skills such
as programing or engineering could help create the next generation of AI.
(Sikka, 2017)

Conclusion

With the facts,
statistics and predictions that have been made it seem highly plausible that
artificial intelligence will take human jobs over the coming years. Although,
this could bring about new jobs that as of yet have not been thought of yet or
other areas of industry could grow and require more staff for tasks AI is incapable
of achieving. (McRae, 2017) As for the ethical frameworks that will be most
relevant in the upcoming AI era Marxism does seem to be the best fit for the
workers, however maybe not as desirable to business owners. (Nizri, 2017) As
under the current capitalist system, the proletariat own only their physical
capacity to work in which they have only the ability to sell their own labour. (Crane
and Matten, 2016) Karl Marx talks about the proletariat revolting and a socialist
movement starting, in which the workers own the organisations and everyone gets
an equal proportion of the profits. With the upcoming AI era pushing workers
out of their jobs the chance of a revolution occurring is high especially if
the government does not step in and create a fairer system for everyone. (Marx,
2001) Although, Utilitarianism could also be implemented alongside Marxism as organisations
could decide to create training and education for their workers to help them create
a better life for them by giving them the chance to create a competitive
advantage. But that being said, yes it does seem very likely that AI will take
human jobs, but with the implementation of Marxism causing a dramatic shift
from capitalism to socialism there should be no need for any worries.

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