Finally, or thought, the mathematical objects. Then,

Finally, I will
explain the cave allegory. A group of captives are chained to a dark cave for
their entire lives. All they can see are the shadows some figurines carried by
people who pass in front of a fire behind the captives. These shadows are their
entire world. Now, let’s suppose that somehow one of these captives was freed
from his chains or was forcefully dragged to the outside. First, he would see
figurines making the shadows he saw his whole life. Than he would see the
flame. When he exists the cave, he would be blinded by sun light at first, but
when his eyes finally adapt to it, he would see natural objects and their
shadows and even the sun itself. If we take the first two allegories, we will
reach to a special interpretation of this final allegory. This whole event can
be seen as a philosophical journey leading to a philosophical awakening. The movement
towards the outside of the cave can be considered the climbing the ladder of
the divided line and going from physical sun to the good for the allegory of
the sun. At first, all that the captive knew was shadows of artificial things,
this can be thought as the eikasia part of the divided line. Then he sees the
figurines themselves, which would be the pistis. After this, he sees the fire
that was burning behind the captives. This would be the physical sun from the
sun allegory. When he goes outside, he sees the shadows of the real objects and
this would be the dianoia or thought, the mathematical objects. Then, he sees
the physical objects themselves, which would be the noesis. Finally, he sees
the sun, which is the good from the sun allegory.

To conclude, I
will talk about on Plato’s view of philosophy and the mission of the
philosopher. Philosophy, for Plato, is about finding model, general
definitions. Unlike the many, the philosopher seeks the essence of things and
does not focus on neither attributes nor instances. With the help of
dialectics, the philosopher tries to achieve understanding and tries to uncover
the first principle. For, Plato this ultimate understanding comes in the form
of the good. After achieving understanding and finding the good, philosopher
must share this knowledge like the cave captive who saw the outside world. This
is the mission, the role of the philosopher. like the captive who returns to
his fellow captives, he must return to the many. Like the captive, he must
teach them what he learned and try to show them the gaps in their knowledge,
the errors in their reasoning. He must show them that there is more to the
world then the shadows of artificial things even if they see him as useless or
ridicule him for his ideas. He must do this even if they turn against him and
try to kill him. After all, he is not a sophist; he is not doing this for
money. He’s doing this for a higher pursuit, which is to discover the truth and
teach it to others. The philosopher should follow the footstep of the Socrates.
Like him, he must become like a gadfly, helping or rather annoying the people
so that they can improve.

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