Digital (Prensky, 2001). DGBL is the consequence

Digital game-based learning (DGBL) refers to the usage of the entertaining power of digital games to serve an educationalpurpose (Prensky, 2001). DGBL is the consequence of a balance between learning and gaming elements (Nussbaum & Beserra,2014). DGBL contains two important elements: fun/entertainment and an educational component (Bellotti, Kapralos, Lee, Moreno-Ger, & Berta, 2013). Two types of games can be distinguished in DGBL: special purpose games which have been developed with an educational purpose and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf games that have been developed for entertainment purposes, but that are beingdeployed in an educational context. Note, however, that this does not mean that special-purpose DGBL games cannot be commercially available (Stewart et al., 2013). Based on the projected primary learning outcomes, three types of special-purpose games can be distinguished. They aim to achieve knowledge transfer (cognitive learning outcomes), skill acquisition (skill-based learning outcomes), and/or attitudinal/ behavioral change (affective learning outcomes) (Stewart et al., 2013). Games that are developed with the primaryaim of achieving knowledge transfer are typically implemented in education, in order to teach math (Castellar, All, de Marez, & Van Looy, 2015) or language (Yip & Kwan, 2006), for example. Digital games that primarily aim to support skill acquisition are generally used for training, for example in a corporate or military context. For instance, several studies have examined the impact of playing games to develop managerial skills (Corsi et al., 2006; Kretschmann, 2012). Games that are developed to achieve attitudinal change are sometimes used by governments and NGOs to raise awareness about a certain topic, such as poverty (Neys, Van Looy, De Grove, & Jansz, 2012). Games with a behavioral change intention are typically found in the health sector. For example, some games promote healthy food and physical activity to children (Baranowski, Buday, Thompson, &Baranowski, 2008). While DGBL can primarily aim to achieve a certain type of learning outcome, this does not exclude secondary learning outcomes (Kraiger, Ford, & Salas, 1993). For instance, a game that primarily aims to teach children English (cognitive learning outcomes) can also result in a more positive attitude towards learning English or English as a subject (affective learning outcomes).

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