Difficulties can argue that the dyslexic brain

Difficulties of dyslexic children in our
educational system.

 Dyslexia
is a learning disability in which children have difficulties in reading, writing
and spelling. This condition does not interfere with intelligence. In fact
children with dyslexia have the same potential as other children. One may also
mention that dyslexia is present throughout a person’s life time. People with
dyslexia have some variations in their brain structure leading to different
brain functioning. When it comes to reading, our brain associates letters and
sounds. A child with dyslexia finds it difficult to correlate sounds with
letters. This process is called decoding. They struggle with the basic language
skill which can be referred to as phonemic awareness. This results in finding
it challenging when it comes to reading and spelling words correctly.

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One may ask what causes dyslexia. There
are several reasons that can be given. Amongst many, one can argue that the
dyslexic brain differs from a brain without dyslexia. A dyslexic brain has a
difference in structure, organisation and operation. These brain variations
give the dyslexic person a precise way of thinking and acquiring new knowledge.
Meaning that dyslexic people have an outline of cognitive skills which
demonstrates capacities of assets and flaws. These brain variations can be
passed through the family, which is why dyslexia is hereditary. Some may argue
that people with dyslexia are right brain thinkers.

There are many characteristics of
dyslexia which makes it difficult for a dyslexic child to learn and acquire new
knowledge. One can mention a few traits which are the most common. Although a
child cannot be identified as dyslexic from a young age, there are some
characteristics which are observable and might indicate that a child is
dyslexic. Such characteristics are for example a postponement in speaking and
having trouble identifying and creating rhymes. Moreover as dyslexic children
grow up and attend primary school show more obvious and more prominent signs of
dyslexia. Some of them being having trouble pairing sounds with symbols which
will result in the inability to form words. They mix-up letters which look or
sound alike. For example they confuse the letters b/d/p as they all look
similar to each other. They confuse the letter /d/ with the letter /t/.  Dyslexic children also experience mistakes in
reading and spelling. They jumble up the symbols. Instead of for example
writing /the/, they write /teh/. They frequently leave out silent letters. For
example writing /mach/ instead of /match/. Mixing up words that sound alike is
also present. Example writing /flour/ instead of /flower/. Another
characteristic of dyslexia is leaving out a letter or adding an additional
letter in a word. They may also replace letters with other letters. Example
writing /pat/ instead of /bat/. Swapping of words is also present. For example
writing /pleh/ instead of /help/. Dyslexic children are not conscious of word
construction and tend to leave out prefixes and word endings.

Moreover, they also find it challenging
to remember how to spell words and then organising them into concepts and
thoughts. These difficulties lead to problems when it comes to writing. As
regards to reading, dyslexic children have to read a text a couple of times in
order to understand it. Meaning that reading texts and acquiring new
information from it can be hard. Dyslexic children make a lot of errors when
reading aloud and find it challenging to read fluently. They also encounter
difficulties when it comes to the pronunciation of words as well as the reading
of letters. Children with dyslexia also struggle to copy down notes. They are
slow at writing and find it difficult to listen and write down notes at the
same time. This means that taking down notes can be a challenging task to do.
Children with dyslexia also find it difficult to write down what they can say
orally. Having trouble with punctuation, grammar and spelling is an issue as
well.

As it was discussed previously, dyslexic
children encounter several difficulties in the educational system. This is
because our educational system is mainly based for non-dyslexic children. One
can mention other numerous cognitive features which makes it difficult for
dyslexic children to learn and think. One can mention the short-term memory.
Dyslexic children have a shorter working memory which leads to defects in the
long-term memory. To read fluently children have to pair words with sounds.
Having trouble with the short term memory can be problematic to do this process.
Struggling with organizing sounds and understanding them is also another
difficulty that dyslexic children encounter. When talking and writing one is
recalling words and constructing them in a way that they are compatible to each
other .Children without dyslexia strengthen their acquired data by means of
speaking. However dyslexic children find this procedure challenging. It is
difficult for them to make sense from sounds and imprint them in their memory. On
the other hand when one is paying attention to sounds, one is engaging in the
process of coordinating sounds with words which are already present in the
long-term memory. If the working memory is working hard to keep up with the mentioned
processes, there is not a lot of short-term memory at one’s disposal so as to
take in new information. One can say that even if dyslexic children are able to
decode and encode words, they do so in a very slow manner which takes a lot of
time and effort. The intellectual features which makes reading and writing
challenging also have an impact on figures. This has to do with recalling and
coordinating sounds with letters either to write the figures as digits or as
words as well as arranging figures so as to hold out a calculation.

Dyslexic children find it difficult to
concentrate due to distractions from environmental stimuli. They struggle to
concentrate for long periods as they get distracted easily and have a short
attention span. This makes a task challenging and a dyslexic child has to put
in a lot of energy when doing a task. Moreover a dyslexic child experiences a
loss of ideas and thoughts, making it hard to manage a piece of work
efficiently. Carrying out several pieces of work all at once can also be
challenging for dyslexic children. This is due to their difficulty to
multitask.

Problems with muscle motor co-ordination
is also an issue. Dyslexic children tend to be clumsier than non-dyslexic
children, finding it more difficult to establish muscle motor coordination.
Problems with visual perception is also another difficulty that they encounter.
Meaning that there is a difference in speed in which visual perception is
organized. This phenomenon is particularly present when a child has to arrange
in an order as well as recalling a mental image of a symbol or shapes of words.

As a result of cognitive difficulties
which were mentioned previously, children with dyslexia experience emotional
problems. When they encounter a difficulty in a task, dyslexic children
experience anxiousness and tension. This anxiety may be followed by exhaustion
and rage. Having problems when carrying out a task may also leave the dyslexic
child with no self-confidence. The child might feel that he or she is not as clever
as others. For a dyslexic child, this concept might leave a discouragement to
continue school. Moreover when dyslexic children encounter failure instead of
motivating themselves to do their best to succeed, they believe that they have
no control over their surrounding environment. For this reason feelings of
incompetency and powerlessness kick in. Having difficulties carrying out
certain tasks like for example reading and writing also has an undesirable effect
on relations with class mates. Due to these struggles children with dyslexia
might experience bullying and teasing. They might also be compared, with a
sibling or with other pupils who appear to be brighter. This leaves the
dyslexic child feeling inferior and ashamed. For this reason dyslexic children
may feel uncomfortable when they are around other people because they are
afraid of making an error in front of everybody and in return will get
undesirable responses.

One might ask what can be done to
minimize the difficulties that dyslexic children encounter in our educational
system. There are many methodologies that can be used so as to improve the
quality of education for dyslexic children. Help can start within the family.
Parents can do their part by reading books out loud with their dyslexic child
as well as playing rhyming games. As regards to the educational setting, the
educator can use several methods. For example using multi-sensory techniques.
Dyslexic children can form letters in sand or in air. When it comes to reading
and writing, bigger font sizes with increased spacing and lined paper can be
used. Moreover to improve spelling teachers can use rhyming words as well as
dividing words into syllables. Apart from the methods that were mentioned,
educators can use other simple yet affective techniques. For example giving a
positive feedback for a task that was done correctly. Providing a photocopy of
the notes as well as allocating more time for reading and comprehension. These
simple techniques will surely boost the dyslexic child’s self-esteem and there
will be more motivation to work harder at school. Although it is not possible
for children to beat dyslexia, they can still acquire good reading skills. Of
course this can happen with the appropriate support from the educational systems
that are used as well as the environment.

 

 

 

 

 

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