Different article evaluates the influence of classical

Different Organisations
industries and businesses use different Management strategies and approaches in
improving their productivity, run the affairs of the Organisations, Companies
and make them grow and dominate the market. This article evaluates the
influence of classical and human relations approaches in Management today. The
article analyses Management in respect of theories and principles of Management
which looks at management as  a system
that looks at all spheres of work and workplaces, it includes planning,
organizing, staffing, leading and controlling accessible resources to realize
the goal or target of an organisation (Skyway University, 2016). Different
theories that includes classical approach by Fredrick Taylor, Henri Fayol’s
administrative principles approach, Max weber’s bureaucratic approach. Further
theory X and Y by Douglass McGregor, Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne studies, Abraham Maslow’s
human needs theory. All these theories have influence in the way modern
businesses are managed. The discussion in this paper will look at the
significance and relevance of these theories to the modern way companies,
businesses and industries manages their businesses.

Most people and
organisations tend to refer management to specifically business environments
alone. Management theories and its principles is also applicable to
environments outside business such as Churches, Schools, Non-Governmental Organisations
(NGOs) and all other businesses that have workers in place.

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There are several theories
of management, despite looking at other theories of management in this
discussion, the paper will pay much attention to two management theories,
Classical and Human theories and how the influence modern environment.

Classical Management
theory looks and centres on the understanding
that workers or employees require and physical
and financial needs in their daily undertakings. These helps
workers to enjoy the work they do and concentrate on delivering and achieving
the needs and objectives of the business, organisation or industry. The Classical management
theory has three key elements and schools of thought; these are Logical Administration,
which recognizes the most significant and perfect way for the attainment
of set objectives, Bureaucratic Administration, which centres on
rules and technique/method, pecking order and clear division
of work; and Administrative management, which emphasizes
the circulation and flow stream of data and information
inside the organisation (www.lehren.org)

Frederick Taylor’s theory of
scientific management established systems for improving work process
efficiency. Centred on a systematic and organised study and investigation of
workers/people, tasks and work conduct, Taylor’s theory organised work process
into the smaller units, or sub-tasks, in an effort to decide the best effective
way for effecting a specific undertaking in any organisation/business, industry
or workplace.                                 

Taylor’s technique comprised of testing the culmination of different tasks to
decide the amount of work that can be effectively done within a certain amount
of time. Taylor’s theory states that organisations needs to come up with the
most ideal methodology for doing any job, and these include training of
workers/employees to manage each component of an organisation. Taylor’s theory
brought various changes to hierarchical administration amid a period when
autocratic administration style was the only way of managing businesses. In his
work experience, Taylor started working as an apprentice operator in
Philadelphia, USA. He worked and from a junior position to a senior position
where he became the chief engineer at the Midvale Engineering Works after that
he worked with the Bethlehem Works where he investigated his ideas which
contributed to the management theory. Frederick Taylor was the first to
identify and emphasize the need for accepting a scientific approach to the task
of controlling and managing a business. He identified the causes of low
efficiency in industry and concluded that much of waste and inefficiency is due
to the lack of order and system in the approaches of organisation. He
identified that the management was usually ignorant of the amount of work that
could be done by an employee in a day as also the best way of doing the job. As
a result, it remained largely at the discretion of the employees who deliberately
avoided work. He therefore, suggested that those responsible for management
should adopt a scientific approach in their work, and make use of
“scientific method” for achieving higher efficiency. The scientific
approach involved, Observation, Measurement, Experimentation and Inference
(Skyway University 2015).

Taylor’s theory and
principles were based on his own experiences at work where he worked as a
shop-floor worker and thereafter worked as a manager in a steel company. He
made an analysis of his work and observed that workers exerted little efforts
in their work and this produced little output. He unveiled the reason for this
inefficient work practices and related this to the concept of ‘soldiering” and
rule of thumb’.

Principles of scientific management
are being practiced in the modern business management, McDonald’s the fast food
chain uses the four principles of Fayol’s and Taylor’s scientific theory in the
administration and running the affairs of their business. McDonald’s was
founded originally as barbecue restaurant in 1940 and later changed to chain of
fast foods in 1955, the business follows corporate standards (McDonald’s,
2016a) a typical example of application of Fayo’ls management principles. The
management of McDonalds implements Fayol’s division of work, unity of command,
Discipline, every employee does one job, and the supervisors of the restaurant
have powers to give disciplined orders and are responsible for the affairs and
running of the restaurant with one critical objective which is inculcated in
their slogan “Our Success depends on each of us accepting personal
responsibility for doing the right thing” (McDonald’s, 2016a, pp.8.).

McDonald’s fast food chain
has demonstrated a distinctive significance through the execution of well-organized
approaches influenced by classical and human relations theories.     

In the modern world,
different organisations and businesses use classical approach to management. The
Active Youth Initiative for Social Enhancement (AYISE) is one best example of a
Non-Governmental Organisation which uses the classical Management approach. The
organisation rewards its workers by giving them incentives and bonuses for the
hard working spirit demonstrated in the achievement of the organisation’s
overall objectives. The organisation developed standards for every position
existing in it, employees on the same grade and position have same job
description and same take home package. Working conditions for the organisation
were standardized and brought uniformity among workers. All these are supported
by the procedure and processes the organisation use when recruiting its
employees, the criteria ensures that people with enough experience and right
expertise take up positions in line with their areas of competencies. All
employees are scrutinised fully before they are engaged for the position they
were interviewed for.

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