Contributions the younger employees do not want

Contributions and limitations

This study has
contributed to understanding culture by using Hofstede’s (1983) original four
dimensions of national cultures and the findings showed that Confucianism is
important in explaining the Korean culture. Confucianism considers age as a
selection requirement. Furthermore, Korean organisations are influenced by hard
work, the degree of sacrifice and
social limitation of the female workforce and such HR practices are not universalistic
but particularistic under Confucianism as it plays a major role in the industrialisation process of East Asian areas, such
as China, Japan and Korea (Kim & Park, 2003; Chan, 1996; Yu & Lee, 1995; Yum, 1988).  Hofstede’s (1991) work did not
include the demographic breakdown of the employees from an empirical survey and
therefore this research further
developed the Hofstede’s model. The research included a survey of all levels of
employees and investigated the relationship between demographic variables such
as ‘age’ and ‘gender’ including culture.  Hofstede (1991) suggested that
there was a very slow change in culture, however some indications from the
findings of the research showed that certain parts of culture are changing
quickly: the younger employees do not want too
much unequal power relationship from the management, also the female employees
are not happy with not getting enough promotion opportunities and the constant
sexual harassment from senior managers. The younger generation seem to
have a more critical view about these issues than the older generation.  What lead to the change in the perspectives
of younger people? This could be associated with the change in attitude of the
younger generation impacted by western ideas and practices. They have observed
the weakening of the Confucian tradition and the increased number of
well-educated and professionally trained women in the workforce (Chee &
Levkoff, 2001; Palley, 1992). 
This research
has demonstrated new contributions to the theoretical development of ‘aesthetic
labour’, rather than Hofstede’s national culture.  In the Tourism Promotion Act the quality standards suggest
hiring aesthetic labour is common in the Korean hotel industry. This indicates
that the aesthetic labour can be sectioned according to hotel class, suggesting
that the high star rating hotels value the importance of “aesthetic” attributes
of the labour force more compared to budget hotels.  In a
similar vein, the
authors have found a new term, which
is ‘cosmetic employment’ that has very distinctive employee relations within Korea when compared to other
countries.  
In order to enhance future job prospects, for example the case of getting
a better job or not fail to get a job, some applicants undergo plastic surgery,
and that clearly shows that physical appearance is an important factor for
obtaining employment in Korea. This is an uncommon employment strategy and due
to the popularity of ‘cosmetic employment’ practices this has led to potential
employees spending a large amount of money on cosmetics and cosmetic surgeries
to be considered by management who see this as good practice. The aesthetic
consideration is not related to Hofstede’s concept and is described as a
characteristic of the Korean culture. This
research has developed a new SHRM model (Figure 3) by embedding a combination
of best fit and best practice in a new framework, (Figure 1) sourced by 3
different data of HR managers, employees and trade unions.  It shows the specific drivers and type of HR
practices related to employee outcomes. The SHRM model was examined for Korean deluxe
hotels, however it can be used in other countries. This model can be used to
understand the relationship between the employees’ outcomes and the distinctive
HR practices produced in a country; the key drivers (i.e. business strategy,
culture, legislation, trade unions, and financial context) are associated with
both best fit and best practice; which leads to improving our understanding of
positive and negative employee outcomes. The model also demonstrates how
successful outcomes can be measured regarding the employees’ feelings about
their organisation.   Our SHRM could be
used internationally compared to other traditional SHRM models, and therefore
we propose that our model can be used in Asian and Western countries. The purpose
of this model is to help develop an understanding of positive and negative
outcomes for employees in relation to HR practices, under the headings of specific drivers. The HR practices related to positive employees’
feelings are training, job security and the role of trade unions. Employees
enjoy training, which are operated by the Korean legislation. These HR
practices lead to positive employees’ outcomes, and therefore this is why the
government policies should be supported in this area.  Employees, it
was found, like trade unions to be involved with management; they feel happy
about welfare and welfare facilities trade unions organised, and they were
found to be helpful for employees. Therefore managers need to continue engaging
in a positive way with trade unions because this brings positive outcomes for
both sides.  On the other hand, looking
at negative feelings, employees were generally not happy with an unjust
recruitment process, unjust
promotion, unfair transfer of personnel decided by company policy, and the recruitment of atypical employees which is driven by the financial
context.  It is a truism that a happy
workforce is a more productive one, it is therefore
important to see what practices make
employees feel better. Employees
find unfair recruitment and selection processes, biased promotions, and
inappropriate transfers unreasonable. In
particular, younger employees do not like HR practices such as widespread
nepotism in
their hotel. Therefore, HR management need to be more
objective when finding methods for recruitment, make clearer promotion
guidelines, and consider the suitable departments for employees.  In conclusion, regarding the HR practices written
above, this demonstrates how the government and company policies can impact the
employees’ perspective and their attitudes and thus their outcomes at work. We would argue that it
is crucial for a successful business to understand the negative impacts of HR
policies in their organisation; in doing so they are able to adjust policies to
make employees feel better and
maintain positive outcomes for all employees. As discussed above, company and government policy
need to respond to each HR practice, therefore the control of HR practices by
policy makers are very important in this area.  The limitation of the research is due to the cross-sectional design, and thus a longitudinal
research needs to be conducted to gain a reliable and detailed observation of
the relationship between the employees’ outcomes and SHRM over time. As a result, the problems of cross-sectional design in this research will be addressed further.  For instance, how the relationship
between government and company policy changed during the global financial
crisis, and how at the start of the crisis this impacted the HR practices and
influenced employee outcomes.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

Distinctive
HR practice

Recruitment
and selection

Training and
development

Performance
appraisal

Job design

Job security

Compensation
and pay system

Service
quality
issues

Empoyee voice
and consultation

Best
fit

Theoretical
frameworks

Best practice

Employee
outcomes

Positive outcomes

Negative outcomes

Business
strategy

Culture

Legislation

Trade unions

Financial context

Key drivers

Figure 3 A New Strategic Human Resource Management
Model

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Contributions and limitations

This study has
contributed to understanding culture by using Hofstede’s (1983) original four
dimensions of national cultures and the findings showed that Confucianism is
important in explaining the Korean culture. Confucianism considers age as a
selection requirement. Furthermore, Korean organisations are influenced by hard
work, the degree of sacrifice and
social limitation of the female workforce and such HR practices are not universalistic
but particularistic under Confucianism as it plays a major role in the industrialisation process of East Asian areas, such
as China, Japan and Korea (Kim & Park, 2003; Chan, 1996; Yu & Lee, 1995; Yum, 1988).  Hofstede’s (1991) work did not
include the demographic breakdown of the employees from an empirical survey and
therefore this research further
developed the Hofstede’s model. The research included a survey of all levels of
employees and investigated the relationship between demographic variables such
as ‘age’ and ‘gender’ including culture.  Hofstede (1991) suggested that
there was a very slow change in culture, however some indications from the
findings of the research showed that certain parts of culture are changing
quickly: the younger employees do not want too
much unequal power relationship from the management, also the female employees
are not happy with not getting enough promotion opportunities and the constant
sexual harassment from senior managers. The younger generation seem to
have a more critical view about these issues than the older generation.  What lead to the change in the perspectives
of younger people? This could be associated with the change in attitude of the
younger generation impacted by western ideas and practices. They have observed
the weakening of the Confucian tradition and the increased number of
well-educated and professionally trained women in the workforce (Chee &
Levkoff, 2001; Palley, 1992). 
This research
has demonstrated new contributions to the theoretical development of ‘aesthetic
labour’, rather than Hofstede’s national culture.  In the Tourism Promotion Act the quality standards suggest
hiring aesthetic labour is common in the Korean hotel industry. This indicates
that the aesthetic labour can be sectioned according to hotel class, suggesting
that the high star rating hotels value the importance of “aesthetic” attributes
of the labour force more compared to budget hotels.  In a
similar vein, the
authors have found a new term, which
is ‘cosmetic employment’ that has very distinctive employee relations within Korea when compared to other
countries.  
In order to enhance future job prospects, for example the case of getting
a better job or not fail to get a job, some applicants undergo plastic surgery,
and that clearly shows that physical appearance is an important factor for
obtaining employment in Korea. This is an uncommon employment strategy and due
to the popularity of ‘cosmetic employment’ practices this has led to potential
employees spending a large amount of money on cosmetics and cosmetic surgeries
to be considered by management who see this as good practice. The aesthetic
consideration is not related to Hofstede’s concept and is described as a
characteristic of the Korean culture. This
research has developed a new SHRM model (Figure 3) by embedding a combination
of best fit and best practice in a new framework, (Figure 1) sourced by 3
different data of HR managers, employees and trade unions.  It shows the specific drivers and type of HR
practices related to employee outcomes. The SHRM model was examined for Korean deluxe
hotels, however it can be used in other countries. This model can be used to
understand the relationship between the employees’ outcomes and the distinctive
HR practices produced in a country; the key drivers (i.e. business strategy,
culture, legislation, trade unions, and financial context) are associated with
both best fit and best practice; which leads to improving our understanding of
positive and negative employee outcomes. The model also demonstrates how
successful outcomes can be measured regarding the employees’ feelings about
their organisation.   Our SHRM could be
used internationally compared to other traditional SHRM models, and therefore
we propose that our model can be used in Asian and Western countries. The purpose
of this model is to help develop an understanding of positive and negative
outcomes for employees in relation to HR practices, under the headings of specific drivers. The HR practices related to positive employees’
feelings are training, job security and the role of trade unions. Employees
enjoy training, which are operated by the Korean legislation. These HR
practices lead to positive employees’ outcomes, and therefore this is why the
government policies should be supported in this area.  Employees, it
was found, like trade unions to be involved with management; they feel happy
about welfare and welfare facilities trade unions organised, and they were
found to be helpful for employees. Therefore managers need to continue engaging
in a positive way with trade unions because this brings positive outcomes for
both sides.  On the other hand, looking
at negative feelings, employees were generally not happy with an unjust
recruitment process, unjust
promotion, unfair transfer of personnel decided by company policy, and the recruitment of atypical employees which is driven by the financial
context.  It is a truism that a happy
workforce is a more productive one, it is therefore
important to see what practices make
employees feel better. Employees
find unfair recruitment and selection processes, biased promotions, and
inappropriate transfers unreasonable. In
particular, younger employees do not like HR practices such as widespread
nepotism in
their hotel. Therefore, HR management need to be more
objective when finding methods for recruitment, make clearer promotion
guidelines, and consider the suitable departments for employees.  In conclusion, regarding the HR practices written
above, this demonstrates how the government and company policies can impact the
employees’ perspective and their attitudes and thus their outcomes at work. We would argue that it
is crucial for a successful business to understand the negative impacts of HR
policies in their organisation; in doing so they are able to adjust policies to
make employees feel better and
maintain positive outcomes for all employees. As discussed above, company and government policy
need to respond to each HR practice, therefore the control of HR practices by
policy makers are very important in this area.  The limitation of the research is due to the cross-sectional design, and thus a longitudinal
research needs to be conducted to gain a reliable and detailed observation of
the relationship between the employees’ outcomes and SHRM over time. As a result, the problems of cross-sectional design in this research will be addressed further.  For instance, how the relationship
between government and company policy changed during the global financial
crisis, and how at the start of the crisis this impacted the HR practices and
influenced employee outcomes.

 

Distinctive
HR practice

Recruitment
and selection

Training and
development

Performance
appraisal

Job design

Job security

Compensation
and pay system

Service
quality
issues

Empoyee voice
and consultation

Best
fit

Theoretical
frameworks

Best practice

Employee
outcomes

Positive outcomes

Negative outcomes

Business
strategy

Culture

Legislation

Trade unions

Financial context

Key drivers

Figure 3 A New Strategic Human Resource Management
Model

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Hi!
I'm Dana!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out