is the pillar of the work which holds the story as a whole. It is like bridge between plot and setting.
Theme provides character to the plot and situation to the event. It relates unity of action, unity of place
and unit of time altogether. Theme can
be divided into major and minor in which major theme goes along with the plot
while the minors are the ingredients of the major one.
Destiny is the branch,
shadow of the life of people which teach them sadness, happiness, surprises,
miracles and problems through lifetime experiences. It is the learning
experience to realize the difficulties by means of love and truth. Theme of Destiny is one of the major
important themes in most of the literary works. In other words it is the branch
of theme. Marriage, Loneliness, Love and
Victim of the society and culture are the ingredients of Theme of Destiny in
Girish Karnad’s Naga-Mandala.
is an essential ceremony of every woman which happens especially in India with
societal rituals. Woman undergoes various changes of inflexibility in marriage
life. Kahlil Gibran says there should be
a space and freedom in marriage life through “And stand together yet not too
near together: For the pillars of the temple stand apart,” in his famous poem on
Marriage in “The Prophet”.
In the practical life, woman
has to sacrifice her happiness, freedom, equality, independence which extends
to her self esteem to fulfill the commitments in her in-laws home. Most of the
times she has to adjust with her dreams to maintain the peace in family. In-laws home it projects drastic change of
environment through its rigidness when compare to the parental house of a
woman. She is supposed to undergo some behavioral changes according to the new
Karnad represents marriage
which is the most important ingredient of Theme of Destiny in Naga-Mandala. He chooses the classy female protagonist who
is an only daughter to her parents and called by the name Rani which means
Queen “Queen of whole wide world” (Girish Karnad, 6). She is a good looking woman and her name Rani
exactly suits “Ears like hibiscus. Skin likes young mango leaves. Lips like
rolls of silk” (11). She is not only
beautiful by means of physical appearance but inner beauty too due to naïve,
soft, caring, loving, truth and affectionate in her soul and mind.
He explains the
difficulties, problems and sufferings of an Indian woman after the marriage
life. He also talking about the
behavioral changes or the adoption of various orders of routine life when
compare to her parental home with in-laws home.
The pretty Rani was so happy, independent, and free from sufferings till
her marriage life starts. But the
marriage life became exactly opposite to her previous life in parental
home. Because she started to indulge
melancholy instead of happiness, dependency instead of independent and
experienced lot of sufferings in many forms of marriage life.
She experienced isolation
and sob in dawn and dusk in the marriage life “Rani sits staring blankly into
the oven. Then begins to sob.” (8). The
marriage life of Rani seized freedom, wishes, desires and dreams, she had in
her parental home which are natural expectations of a woman have to have in
life. It leads her into the hands of
destiny. The destiny manipulates her
through the so called marriage life which is the substitute of Theme of Destiny
to attain its purpose. These are the
happenings made her to experience the rigidity and inflexibility in the life of
So, she started to sacrifice
her previous lifestyle which was filled with immense joy and pleasure. She convinced her expectations as a married
woman to prevail peace among the couple.
She adjusts herself to go with loneliness, oppressions, depressions and
suppressions by adopting them in her daily life in in-laws home. The entire marriage life of Rani leads her
into the dark side of life which she never been in her life time by various
torments which are caused by the ingredient of marriage in Theme of
Destiny. But it couldn’t succeed because
Rani has overcome all the difficulties and tortures with pure love and
truth. Finally Rani has to lead the life
loneliness in the marriage life.
is the poorest part in every human life. It is very difficult to go through
life alone and remain happy. Girish
Karnad has incorporated loneliness as an ingredient to fulfill the Theme of
Destiny in Naga-Mandala with the use of protagonist Rani. It is
illustrated in many places of the play to elucidate the loneliness of Rani.
Rani is portrayed as an innocent doll who suffers a lot due to her loneliness
is a husband of protagonist Rani, who doesn’t have love, care, affection and
concern towards his wife. As a husband
he doesn’t perform his duties to take care of Rani and ill treated her in many
ways. According to Appanna, Rani was a
machine to do all the household works without allowing her to come out of the
premises of his house. He is an
irresponsible husband who never ever listened to his wife and never talked with
her not a syllable more than required.
“Appanna should have been born a wild beast or a reptile. By some mistake, he got human birth” (8).
is being taken to Appanna’s home to live a happy married life. As a woman, Rani’s expectations of marriage
life have been broken by merciless Appanna.
She is all alone in home like a caged bird but he never worried about
Rani. “He keeps his wife locked up like
a caged bird?” (Girish Karnad, 10). He used to come to home once in a day that
too for lunch alone and Rani left alone in that home till the time of next day
lunch. Appanna makes her to realize what
are all the things existing in this world except happiness.
she is being alone in that home due to Appanna’s worst behavior. “He pays no attention to her, goes out, shuts
the door, locks it from the outside and goes away” (6). This situation makes her to speak with her
own self by means of imagination. Even in that imagination she thinks to escape
from the loneliness and longing to meet her parents to feel comfortable with
the help of eagle in her dream. This
shows the state of Rani’s loneliness in Appanna’s home. When she awakes from her dream she got frightened
and makes herself relaxed by splashing water on her face in the bathroom.
briefed about her loneliness with Appanna when he returned for lunch the next
day. She told him that I felt frightened
alone at night. But the soul less
Appanna didn’t listen to her emotion and told her that there is nothing to be
scared of and no one is going to bother you.
By chanting these words, he finished his lunch then done the same. The poor Rani approached the door but it
couldn’t be opened. She looks through
the barred window but no one is there to rescue her from loneliness. It makes her to remember those days where she
used to sleep in between her parents.
This nostalgia shows the painful feelings and loneliness of Rani in Naga-Mandala.
she is experiencing loneliness, Appanna enjoys his life with pleasure and
leisure. This cruel loneliness brings
Rani a painful thought in her mind and painful feelings in her soul. This shows that Rani’s life is full of
emptiness which holds nothing except agony.
There were no one to share her feelings, no one to care for her and
nothing is available to indulge herself to do something except loneliness. This depicts the state of being frustrated,
oppressed and suppressed Rani.
always rebel with miseries, distress and crises which are caused by loneliness
in her marriage life. She has no one to
comfort herself other than cry and tears.
This most horrible loneliness made her to lose each and every
comfortable moment in her life. Appanna
gives his wife isolation instead of consolation. He also caused to be the
reason for Rani’s separation from her parents care and love. These are all the situations created by
Theme of Destiny and performed by loneliness which is also an ingredient of
Theme of Destiny.
This loneliness leaves Rani with the constant
need and wants to have Appanna there to fill that empty void. She started to seek Appanna’s love to fulfill
her loneliness by following Kurudavva’s advice.
This harmful loneliness leads Rani to use magic love root to gain
Appanna’s love. Though loneliness has
brought many difficulties in the life of Rani, she didn’t give up her hope to
attain the love of Appanna till the end of play.
helped Rani to gain Appann’s love through her suggestions. Kurudavva asked Rani to follow the love root
method which she was experienced practically in her own life. Kurudavva who is a blind by birth didn’t
expect to get married in her life. But a
mendicant offered the magical love root as a reciprocal of food given by
Kurudavva. It had worked incredibly when
Kurudavva offered the love root to her distant relative with food then he
becomes her husband within two days. He
didn’t back to his village until his death.
Kurudavva lived a happy married life with her husband and gave birth to
a fair child Kappanna as a symbol of their love.
words of Kurudavva gives hope and stimulate the love of Rani for her husband
Appanna. She decided to use the magic love root to temptate her husband. She got afraid when she decided to use the
root in the milk for the first time. But
somehow she managed to overcome the fear by her love for her husband. Her first attempt created a shock because
Appanna faints after consuming the milk. This shows that the concern and lots
of love of Rani for her husband.
though her first experience is not good her immense love for her husband
Appanna made her to try second one with big root. “Rani prays silently to the gods and pours
the paste into the curry.” (Girish Karnad, 16).
But she doesn’t like to serve the blood red colored curry to Appanna
because her previous experience couldn’t allow her to proceed further. She
planned to dispose off that curry outside the house instead of serving to
dog barked while she poured the curry into the ant-hill. The barking sound of
the dog reminds Appanna to search of Rani in the kitchen then out of the house.
When Appanna saw Rani outside the house he became anguish and slapped her so
the poor Rani faint down due to Appanna ill treat.
is a common one for each and every existing creature which is created by God on
the earth. It is the natural and fundamental happening or element not only
among the people but animals, birds and reptiles too. Sometimes the love could
be exist human being and animals, human being and birds and human being and
reptiles. This love technique beautifully brought out by Girish Karnad through
myth between Rani and Naga in the award winning play Naga-Mandala. Love
is an alternative drug therapy for all kind of life diseases. In Naga-Mandala
love cures Rani’s loneliness in the form of Naga.
poured curry mesmerized cobra, because it contains the paste of magic love
root. So, the cobra supposed to fell in love with Rani deeply. Then the cobra
started to seek the love of Rani in the form of her husband Appanna due to its
changing form of any character. The cobra is named Naga when it is in the form
of Appanna with Rani. Naga used to come to her room through bathroom drain hole
when Appanna is not available in the house especially during the night.
Love for Rani is deep in heart, depth in soul and kind in mind. His behaviors
made Rani to become shock, because Appanna is so cruel in heart, very arrogant
in soul and very hard in mind. But Naga is simply opposite to him in
everything. Rani doesn’t aware of Naga
because of the shape of own husband Appanna. Naga is soft in his words,
behaviors and he is so much concerned about her. He inquires about the
difficulties that she experienced because of him in marriage life. This shows his real affection towards Rani.
he tenderly spoke with her through sweet and soft words and consoled her by
means of make her to speak with her parents. He demands her to smile for that
to satisfy her wish. This shows Naga’s boundless love for Rani. His pure love
just expects nothing rather than the happiness in Rani’s life in terms of smile
feeling of Naga is overflowing in love for Rani. His love for Rani is
everything to him. In fact the love made him to do anything and everything for
her. So, he had fight with the dog and he killed the dog to see Rani in her
home. This fight gave the good opportunity to become closer with Rani than
before. He does even care about his wound as a result of fighting with dog but
it stimulates Rani’s concern for him. Then the concern turned as worries
because she feels so sad and painful due to his wounds.
She washed wounds in his face and treated
him with proper care by using medicines. This incident made him to feel very
blissful and Rani too comfort with him while that moment. The love started to
flourish step by step between them. This situation changed entire life of Rani
through completely makes her drowned into love with him. Now she feels very
happy in life because of his love.
had a trouble in his love life after killed the dog. Actually he is in crucial
situation because of the mongoose. It is the dangerous animal for Naga to fight
but which is the very big barrier to meet Rani. Even though he doesn’t bather
about perilous mongoose and he bravely and gallantly won the mongoose like a
soldier in the war which is actually happened between the Naga and the
mongoose. While the war he was injured severely like a warrior but he has done
it that for his pretty queen Rani.
of this incident he couldn’t meet Rani for fifteen days. But this separation
which made her to feel melancholy, isolation, agony and increased her love for
him more and more in a incredible way than before. He has indulging this
painful experience in love due to the separation which caused by the mongoose
through wounds while fighting with that risky mongoose. Naga is suffering so
much not only in physic but also in soul. The abrasions and scratches are cause
for his physic pain but the separation is the main reason for his soul pain but
the love is only one healing medicine for him for both pains even though the
reasons could be vary.
is so excited because she could see her beloved after fifteen days. The meeting
fulfilled both Rani and Naga’s thirst for love. The longings of love made them
to share their love very happily after a long time. Both Rani and Naga are
blissfully embracing one another by means of love. During their pleasure moment
Rani has noticed an in injury in his shoulder. She was shocked and felt
miserable while that gloomy time. Then she applied medicine on the wound with
so much care and affection. Actually that wound was caused by mongoose because
it is the huge obstacle for Naga which stops him entering the house to see
Rani. He is always ready to face each and every problems and barriers in his
love life for Rani because she is the world to him. His love for Rani is
venerable, splendid and impressive.
is always there for his pretty, beautiful Rani to take care of her from all the
problems, frustrations, depressions, oppressions and harms. Naga is also there
for her to share the feelings, emotions and thoughts. Naga’s heart, mind, soul
and body filled with boundless love. It shows his pure love towards Rani. Sweet
Rani’s love for her husband is surprising and admiring because she missed her
husband and his love very much during those fifteen days. Her care, concern,
affection projects the holy love of Rani towards her husband.
was pregnant through Naga by means of due their love. Rani happily shared this
auspicious moment with Appannna. Immediately he stares blankly. Then he told
her to keep this news secret due to the fact which is actually doesn’t know by
Rani that she is living with Naga. “There is a baby in my womb and we are going
to have a baby” (30). The theme of destiny used the love as a ingredient to
manipulated Rani’s life.
is always so kind with Rani when he impersonates Appanna at night times whereas
Appanna never had concern for his wife.
This kindness during the night time shown by Appanna makes Rani to feel
the happiness in her life. But at the
same time she had to face the inhuman activities of her husband during day
time. She was always longing for the
pleasant evening time where his husband (Naga) used to embrace her in
love. This love made Rani to forget
those difficult times and try to understand his love with Appanna.
love between Rani and Naga in this play is portrayed in a mythical way. Rani is really in love with her husband
Appanna though he is rude in his nature because she is given the status of
being the wife of Appanna. Rani’s love for Appanna with magical root method
leads to an unpredictable outcome where a Cobra has taken the shape of Appanna,
make love with Rani and she becomes pregnant.
This makes her as a victim in the society and leads to face the
proceedings of the locals to deal with.
is depicted as a victim of love in this play. A victim is someone who suffers
directly or indirectly by any cause which may be of his/her own activities or
by anyone else. It affects the physical or emotional activities of a
person. Its effects are often long-term,
difficult to overcome, irrecoverable and sometimes leads to psycho
problems. Victims may become confused,
anger and frustrated by go on grinding the activities happening to them in
love made her to become as a victim of society and culture. She is answerable
to the society at present due to her pregnancy. The game of victim is
interestingly played by destiny in the life of Rani. Because of pregnancy the
elders of the society asked her to prove her virginity. These all things are happened
because of Appanna. So, she is standing in front of the panchayat to prove her
virginity. That’s why the people of the society suggest her to follow few
methods according to their culture to prove her virginity.
she selects one method which is actually advised by Naga in the form of
Appanna. Then the people asked her to take out the cobra through her hands to
prove her virginity. The cobra spread its
hood above her head and slide along the shoulder like a garland. She too had done it as people said and
proved her virginity. While her taking the cobra from its hole which didn’t
bite her. It is the great evidence for her virginity. The people automatically
praised for her truth and love towards her husband. Then she was accepted by
her husband Appanna.
destiny has given so many difficulties through its ingredients. The ingredients
also manipulate her through sufferings throughout the life. Whatever problems
and sufferings which are provided by destiny in the life of Rani, she strongly
and bravely faced it. She never gives up and didn’t accept the defeat. Rani
enormously won the destiny through her truth and love.
Both love and truth helped her to
overcome the difficulties in marriage life, loneliness, love life and even the
destiny. When she was standing as a victim in front of the society there is
nothing to guide her except truth. Love is the great support when she became as
a victim of culture and it changed her as a happy and optimistic person to live
her life in a positive way.