Caffeine 2006). Therefore, the highest legal amount

Caffeine is a naturally
occurring alkaloid which is found in the leaves, seeds and fruits of over 63
plants species worldwide. It is an alkaloid of methylxanthine family. The
methylxanthines caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyxanthine), theobromine (3,7-
dimethylxanthine), and theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) can be normally
found in cola nuts, coffee beans, cocoa beans, tea leaves, mate leaves and other
kinds of plants. While coffee and tea beverages naturally contain caffeine and
other methylxanthines, Caffeine serves as an ingredient in many carbonated soft
drinks including colas, pepper-type beverages, and citrus beverages. Pure
caffeine occurs as odorless, white, fleecy masses, glistening needles of
powder. Its molecular weight is 194.19g, melting point is 236°C, point at which
caffeine sublimes is 178°C at atmospheric pressure, pH is 6.9 (1% solution),
specific gravity is 1.2, volatility is 0.5%, vapor pressure is 760mmHg at
178°C, solubility in water is 2.17%, vapor density 6.7.Caffeine has drawn more
attention in the past decades due to its physiological effects beyond that of
its stimulatory effect. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines caffeine
as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance. However, FDA specifies that
the maximum amount in carbonated beverages is limited to 0.02% (FDA 2006).
Therefore, the highest legal amount of caffeine allowed in a 355 mL (12oz) can
of soft drink is about 71mg. Caffeine has attracted the interest of consumers
and health professionals alike due to its wide consumption in the diet by a
large percentage of the population and its pharmacological effects in humans
(Mandel 2002). The human’s saliva caffeine level, which demonstrates the extent
of absorption, peaks around 40 minutes after caffeine consumption (Liguoriet al
1997). Its physiological effects on many body systems have been reported by
researchers, including the central nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal,
respiratory, and renal systems (Nehliget al 1992). The International Olympic
Committee (IOC) defined caffeine as a drug and abuse is indicated when athletes
have urine caffeine concentrations higher than 12?g/mL.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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