BTEC Level 3 Subsidiary Diploma in SportUnit 11 Sports Nutrition – Assignment 2Name: Jennifer Frawley Form: 12FStudent Number: S17307Macronutrients are natural substances which the body requires daily in order to function, grow , repair and stay healthy .The three macronutrients are Carbohydrates , proteins and fats. Each of the three nutrients provide a different purpose for the body, when food is consumed the body will absorb these nutrients using the digestive system. As you can see from the diagram below the nutrients all contain Carbohydrates Starch in Cereal , Corn Flour , potatoes , pasta and flour Carbohydrates – give the body energy Two types ; starch and sugar Simple Carbohydrates contain one one or two sugar molecules linked together Complex contain more than two molecules linked togetherSugar found in fruit vegetables , honey , milk and malted products A Carbohydrate molecule is made up of Hydrogen , Carbon and OxygenCarbohydrates are the main source of energy for athletes , as the sugar from food are absorbed quickly into the system which provide an instant effect. The particles are digested quickly , therefore flow into the bloodstream within a shorter time periodAthletes should consume large amounts of carbohydrates the night before an event or the morning of the event.Protein Found throughout the body—in muscle, bone, skin, hair, and virtually every other body part or tissue. It makes up the enzymes that power many chemical reactions and the hemoglobin that carries oxygen in your blood.The Institute of Medicine recommends that adults get a minimum of 0.8 grams of protein for every kilogram of body weight per day.Lack of protein can cause growth failure, loss of muscle mass, decreased immunity, weakening of the heart and respiratory system, and deathA protein molecule contains Nitrogen ,Calcium, and sometimes contain some sulphur The body requires substances name Amino Acids which are in essential. Proteins are made up of these Amino Acids. The main sources of protein comes from Meat , Eggs , Fish and Soya products. For Meat eaters For Vegetarians Fats There are 4 major forms of fatSaturated fats and Trans Fats are the unhealthy sources of fat and are solid at room temperature such as butter. Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated fats are the healthier forms of fat. They are liquid when at room temperature. Vegetable Oils are one example of these fats.Insulates the body , source of energy , long term energy source for the body Obtained from animal source, butter, lard , vegetable sources , olive oils and sunflower oil Made of Hydrogen , Carbon and Oxygen Fatty acids from meat and vegetables contribute to the bodies fat content Although fats are essential for the body is it highly important that they are sources from natural food, consuming too much of the wrong fats will result in dietary diseases or heart problems.Micronutrients Vitamins and minerals are the two types of micronutrients, they are also essential for the body but in smaller amounts. They are important for the metabolism , normal rate of growth , bone density , heart function and overall well being.Vitamin A, C B complex , B simple , D, E and K are the most common vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver or fatty tissues in the body. They are easier to store compared to water soluble vitamins. They can be stored in the body for weeks or months. Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats/lipids. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble. Water-soluble vitamins do not get stored in the body for too long, and are excreted through the urine. They can be destroyed by heat or by being exposed to the air for too long. They can also be destroyed by certain cooking methods which use high temperatures.Therefore, the supply of water soluble vitamins need to be replaced more often or else the body will not get enough.Vitamins are organic compounds that are found in foods. They help to sustain life. Consuming them reduces the chance of someone suffering from malnutrition. The main micronutrients are ; iron , zinc , calcium , magnesium , copper, Minerals are organic substances found in food which are highly important for ; teeth , bones , hair , skin and also help manage the metabolism process. They are important for keeping the body in a general healthy state.Calcium – growth of teeth , bones , milk eggs and cheese whole grain , green vegetables Iron- formation of red blood cells , red meat , eggs , lentils , green vegetables Zinc – Oysters , beef , lamb , seeds, pork , nuts immune system , cell growth , wound healing, needed for senses such as taste and smell. Magnesium – Beans ,nuts , whole grains such as rice and leafy green vegetables such as spinach.The amount of minerals someone should consume depend on the individual. For example pregnant women , children and the elderly will need to increase their intake of minerals to maintain average health. Minerals can also be over consumed , it is highly important that someone does not take excessive amounts of one mineral or it may lead to fatigue , pain joints or muscles or in severe cases hair loss and weight gain.Fibre is a dietary substance which is required for the digestive system however unlike the other nutrients the body does not absorb fibre. There are two types of fibre; Soluble, which is found in vegetables , fruits and oats which are dissolved in water in the digestive system and Insoluble, found in bread , pasta and cereals. These are past through the body and exit similar to the original form.Good sources of fibre are; beans , whole grains , rice ( brown is healthier ) and PopcornNeed to help prevent heart disease, weight gain and type 2 diabetes Recommended daily amounts from the NHS Sources of Fibre You can only get fibre from foods which are grown on plants, meat and dairy products do not provide any fibreLack of fibre can often lead to constipation and weight gain since this nutrient keeps people full for longer Excessive amounts of fibre can lead to bloating , loose stools ,abdominal pain and low blood sugar levelsNutritional Requirements are specific amounts of each nutrient which an individual requires on a daily basis. A list of nutritional requirements will vary depending on the person . Although the amounts differ there are certain nutrients which all humans must consume in order for survival and health . For example athletes will require more protein and carbohydrates in their diet depending n the kind of sport the take part in. All of the essential nutrients and minerals should be consumed within 1500-2500 calories per day depending on height , weight and amount of exercise. Essential & Non-Essential Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are very important as an energy source for the body , especially for those who participate in a sport . However the human body is able to find other sources of energy from foods high in proteins/ fats and can live comfortably on a low carb diet meaning that the overall carbohydrates are not an essential nutrient for health but are essential for athletes. There are non essential carbohydrates when it comes to selecting the right source. For example it is more beneficial if that an athlete consumes natural sugars from fruit on a regular basis rather than products which can be considered non essential such as ; chocolate bars and sweets . Although they both provide energy , the fruit is more essential for the body.Essential & Non-Essential ProteinUnlike Carbohydrates , proteins are essential for the body as they contain all of the amino acids which help the body grow and repair. Some of these amino acids are already produced by the body but can be found in foods therefore it is not essential to include them in your diet.There are many sources of protein found in meat and vegetable sources therefore red and white meat can be considered non essential since vegetarians are able to source protein form items such as soy. Essential & Non-Essential FatsEssential fatty acids play an important role in keeping the body healthy and preventing illness.Omega 3 and Omega 6 are the most essential fatty acids and can be found in vegetable oils and oily fish. Through consuming these essential fats the body can help prevent heart disease and regulate the blood flow. These fats can also be found in tuna and mackerel. To include more of the essential fats in your diet , consuming leafy green vegetables and pulses like flaxseed daily will increase the amounts of essential fats in your body which can help reduce the non essential.The reasons there are non essential fats are due to the fact that the body can make some of the non essentials causing in excessive amounts which can lead to more risk of disease.Nutrition TerminologyRecommended Daily Allowance (RDA) This is the recommended amount of nutrients which around 90% of the population need to intake per day. An example of a recommended daily intake is the amount of suggested protein per day; 0.8-1.5 grams of protein per pound of body weight. This will be based on the majority of the population who are at the average height and weight.Optimum Level The optimum level of a specific nutrient will vary depending on the person or athlete . this term also ,means the amount of a nutrient the person must consume in order to perform at their optimum( highest) level. An example of this may be that the optimum level of protein intake will be much more for an elderly person than it will be for a person in their 20s. Safe Intake (SI) Consuming the right amount of food in order to ensure your safety. This term is used when describing how much of a certain nutrient should be consumed to benefit the person’s lifestyle. Taking too much of one nutrient can just be as harmful as an deficiency in it, therefore it is highly important that a balance in the diet is found to eliminate any risk.Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) An estimated average requirement can be given by a personal trainer , doctor or dietitian. Based on the individual an average requirement can be estimated so that they can incorporate more or less of this in their diet. EAR can also be done on a broader scale for example the statistic of an estimated 70g of fat per day is recommended for adults.Components of a Balanced DietCarbohydrates , proteins and fats make up most of a balanced diet Our body is more than 70% water , therefore this is an highly important factor to the diet and must be replenished in order for the body to function the metabolism and other systems.Fibre is incorporated in the green section of the balanced diet plate in the diagram below , they also contribute to a large amount of the diet Complete a one-day food log for a selected elite sports performerAthlete Name: Sport:Meal 1Breakfast : ½ cup of oatmeal 1 glass of water – 400 ml Meal 2Lunch : stir fried vegetables and noodles – carrots , broccoli ,Bok choy – soba noodle Plate should weigh around 200-300 grams Meal 3Dinner: Pesto Pasta with Broccoli and spinach – 1 portion – 200-300g Meal 4???Snack 11 cup of mixed fruit ; pineapple , grapes , watermelon Snack 230g Pretzels – sodium intake Snack 3???100g carrot sticksPre-Work OutPost- Work OutHydrationRoughly 1,200 ml of water , 1 glass of orange juice Comparison between average diet and athletes diet Athletes consume more calories in one day than an average person. On average a women is recommended to have an intake of 1,200 calories and men 2,500 calories. Both of these averages will increase if the person is an athlete, they amount will range between 2000-3000 calories for both genders depending on the sport they are commiting to. The increase in the amount of carbs will also be the major difference in their diets since this nutrient will most likely be their main source of energy for the day. The reason athletes are able to consume more is due to the fact that they’re are burning the fats and sugars off whilst they are doing the exercise, whereas with an average person we do not do enough exercise to burn off the calories. Once we give our bodies time to digest the nutrients without burning them off the sugars will turn into fat which will later result in weight gain.In terms of minerals and vitamins the amount of these can remain roughly the same for both of these people. However certain nutrients may need to increase in amount depending on the exercise. The diet will differ if the athletic is performing (for example )strength building exercise , anaerobic or aerobic. Athletes focusing on strength are likely to consume more calcium to ensure that their bones to not fracture or break when they are performing the exercise.Pre season Mid Season Post seasonPre event hydration is a highly important factor to consider. The athlete must consume both water an isotonic drinks before a event occurs but it is also important that the amount is controlled to prevent the athlete from getting cramps /stitches during their event. Having a bladder which is full is also not recommend for athletes participating in high intensity sports or running. The athlete should have consumed a large amount of carbs the day before the event and or the morning of the event as they are not advised to eat prior to the event the starting. Non essential and essential carbs can be consumed pre event in order to give the athlete as much energy as possible.Interevent similar to the pre event diet , smaller amount of water and other sporting drinks can be consumed during breaks depending on the sport to keep the athlete hydrated. However is is important that they find a balance to prevent fatigue but also to prevent them having too much unwanted water in the body. Eating intervention is not recommended , risking any form of food portioning inter event will be fatal for the athlete as well as having a full stomach where unnecessary food is in the body causing extra weight.Post event protein is important directly after an event , as well as water to replenish the amounts that have been disposed during the event through sweat. Protein post event will help the body repair any torn ligaments or any strain in the muscles within a shorter period of time. Since the event has finished , the intake of sugar can decrease and the intake of salts can replace them. Using rehydration salts in water will also help the body maintain the levels of salt in the body.