As of various survey connected activities with

As a classifications
engineering research develops, empirical data collection methods, such as
surveys, are expected to be progressively functional. Survey research has the possible
to advance the development of systems engineering research. Applying systems
engineering to survey research also has the potential to develop survey
research by offering a perspective that can improve the performance of various
survey connected activities with a case study survey are examined in the
context of systems engineering technical and management processes, methods and
tools. However, surveying science is so important because it is used in every
aspect of advanced technology and creating sites. Surveying is a first steps of
building anything, the aspects of being used and its instrument tools.

 

 

 

 

 

                                          

 

 

 
 1. Introduction

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 1.1 Definition of
survey engineering

   
     The beginning of
civilization without engineering field it is not clear. For that reason,
engineering mechanism throughout history of humanity is being used to make life
easier. Most of the emperors were using surveying data for leading them to
approach his opponents and concur them. Throughout old destinations were being
left at todays. It is illustrate that in most of them most mechanism of
surveying skill were implemented. For instance the pyramid of Egypt mostly
implemented high development science especially surveying because as it seems
most of them have right straight line in all directions. However, surveying
science is very important because its use in every feature of advanced
technology. Surveying its elementary steps of building anything, the aspects of
being used and its instrument tools.

 

 

 

2.
History of survey engineering

       History of the first roads and highways are unknown
so far. But when the humans first settled and started to raise animals 9000
years ago, the roads which were used by humans for the animals are the first
roads in the history of humanity. The direction of the roads made by the
animals became the direction for the properties and lands of the humans. This
was the basis of road slope, angle, elevation . The  modern roads began with the invention of
wheels 5000 B.C. the roads were covered with stones in the country of  Rafidaiin 3500 B.C. at 3000 B.C the Egyptians
constructed a road that connected river Neil with the pyramids in order to
transport the huge rocks for the construction of the pyramids in a fast way.
After that the Babylonians constructed the first road made out of cement that
connected their capital to the different areas around it. But before all
of  them the Romanians planed and
constructed the basics of roads and pathways, in 400 B.C they constructed a
large net of roads which had 29 main roads with the total distance of 80,000
km. which were used for military purposes from their capital Rome to the other
cities and some of those roads still exist. The Romanians used a new way to
construct roads in which their roads were in a straight line in order to
decrease the distance between places, furthermore they constructed the roads
over hills and steep places instead of going around them and they stayed away
from valley and deep places due to floods and hurricanes. They depended on the
modern techniques of that time by covering the roads with layers of heavy and
strong rocks for the foundation, after that they used a layer of wide stones
and used some kind of cement to hold the rocks together. Their engineers also
knew how to create cross slope to direct the water on the roads

 

to
a specific place.  At that time Leveling
instruments were not available instead they used fire and flames to know if the
roads are straight or not, they also used the stars as their own GPS. After the
Roman Empire construction of roads stopped in the dark ages in Europe, and
construction of roads didn’t start until the late 18th century, in which a
French engineer started to plan and construct roads using small and broken
rocks as a foundation for constructing the roads and after that covering it
with smaller stones, this became the basics for constructing highways at the
time of Napoleon for the military. At the same time road constructing developed
in England by the two engineers (McAdam and Telford). Telford used large rocks
for the foundation and covered it with small rocks.  However McAdam used only small roacks for
every layer, and his method is still being applied to this day. At the
beginning of the 19th century thousands of kilometers of roads were constructed
considering the works of Horchow in which the roads were built on a strong
foundation. After that elastic tiers were used instead of metal tires by
Denlube in 1888, furthermore the roads were covered with Asphalt, this way
everything Became easy and better, noise pollution and air pollution were
reduced largely. In the Middle East and especially Kurdistan, from the times of
the Acadians and the Sumerians surveying were used in the areas using old
surveying measuring tools. In the ancient times the Kurds used to build roads,
houses, buildings, castells in a way that they still exist or their remaining
exist, for example Hawler castle, Amedy castle and the roads that lead to the
caves. The history of the beginning of surveying in Kurdistan can’t be
accurately determined. The only thing close to it is from the time of the
invasions of ‘Othman Empire and the British empire. After they left a new era
began in Kurdistan, they were able to develop in most aspects of life,
especially in engineering surveying. Roads and buildings were graphed on paper
prior to construction which gave them a more modern look. The roads and
buildings that exist now are the result of the works which was done at that
time. Surveying had one of the biggest roles in these developments, because the
roads and buildings are arranged due to the instruments such as, Level, tape,
GPS and Total station.

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