Among the major themes discussed within the novel is the author’s exploration of morality and the nature of people. During the early 1990s, discrimination and prejudice were rampant in the society. The novel by Harper Lee offers various instances expressing the concepts of discrimination. And, even though the situations surrounding the novel seem horrifying and upsetting, they were common during the era of Herpes Lee, and more of acceptable among humans. Despite the fact that the book is written long after the abolition of slave trade and end of civil war, discrimination and prejudice still remained rampant in various parts of the United States. Lee presents the bigotry of the time and the subtle manner the blacks could be mistreated during the era. Lee, through the representation of the novel characters, explores the moral nature of people and the struggles they undergo amidst discrimination. The novel is effective in revealing concepts of prejudice, its nature, and the role of individuals in promoting discriminatory concepts within the society. To accomplish this, Lee dramatizes the main characters, Jem and Scout, to represent the transition they undergo from childhood innocence. For instance, since these characters have not experienced evil, they assume that individuals in the society are naturally good and tolerant to one another. However, when they grow and encounter the realistic nature of things in an adult perspective, they change and start confronting evil, prejudice, and end up incorporating these aspects in their world. The novel is written at a time when discrimination was common in the United States. Negros were discriminated by the society, which believed in superiority and supremacy over different races. Maycomb town, which is more of a racist society, exemplifies the discrimination and prejudice among its people. Herpes Lee weaves a vivid story through the novel characters, developing a mirror reflection of the racism that existed in the contemporary America society during 1930s. Lee expresses the dominating ideology of racial discrimination through the innocence of the main characters, Scout and Jem. What is obvious is that racial discrimination is evil and that African-Americans are treated in unjust and cruel ways. For instance, the character of Scout highlights issues of racism, where after she has been victimized amidst her innocence, she realizes that despite her innocence, hatred, ignorance and prejudice will still find a victim. Though at the end she still maintains her faith for human nature, Scout still remains in shock due to the unfair treatment she receives from Tom Robinson during the courtroom conviction. For Jem, his justice, truth, and respect for humanity is damaged, and he is yet to understand why these things happen. Such aspects as racism and prejudice are not sensible to him, as he views them as foreign aspects that do not exist in his world. Contrary to the prior characters, Atticus Finch experiences and understands evil all through his life. In various instances, he experiences racism and prejudice, but does not lose his faith for goodness in humans. Through his experiences, he is able to understand that human have bad and good qualities, while Scout and Jem learn of the same during their trials and troubling experiences. They ease themselves of the burden after realizing the existence of discrimination concepts in the society. Lee criticizes discrimination of any form by introducing cultural, religious, race, and family discourses. Though, the most dominating discourse throughout the novel is race, where Lee explains that life is all about appreciating good qualities in humans, learning to understand the bad qualities and treating individuals with sympathy by getting to understand their perspectives regarding life. Through the character of Atticus, Lee explains the importance of considering things from other people’s point of view as the way to understand and appreciate them. The author’s ultimate moral lesson is the possibility of living with conscience without being cynical or losing hope. Issues of discrimination exist where Calpurnia, the black housekeeper of the Finch is treated as an individual with a low social class. For instance, she cannot sit and eat together with other members of the family, and she has to sit at the backseat as they visit places. Despite being with them for a long time working for them, they still cannot count Calpurnia as equal to them. The other form of discrimination relates to the manner the blacks are referred to as niggers or darkie. The whites in the novel see nothing wrong in referring to blacks using these phrases, but Atticus terms it offensive and knows that blacks do not like being referred by these words, an example when Atticus scolds Scouts and calls him a nigger. Further, when he represents the black during a trial, it is obvious that he understands the nature of equality more than others, and despite his feelings, others seem more prejudicial against blacks. Discrimination against lawyers occurs within the novel. They undergo discrimination against their representations and what they stand for, for example where Atticus faces hatred for representing the niggers. His children undergo ridicule, even to a point where people ask them if they are not ashamed of their fathers. However, due to the nature of inequality the blacks experience, Atticus is ready to depend them and fight for their rights. For instance, they sit separately in church, cannot frequent restaurants for the whites, use separate doors, are not allowed to vote, have separate schools, and are subjected to laws of Jim Crow. Such aspects indicate how whites view themselves as better than blacks, thus treating them with inferiority. Gender discrimination is also profound in the entire novel, though the most concerning event is the interaction between Aunt Alexandra and Scout, where Scout ends up refusing to be feminine. Aunt Alexandra represents the typical lady who is ready to take care of her feminism and appearances, while Scout avoids all the notions of feminism by doing activities similar to those conducted by Jem and Dill, remaining outgoing and is not afraid of getting dirty. Through characterization, Lee expresses the expectations of females and stereotyping aspects in the society. Another hint of gender discrimination is where women cannot be juries, where Miss Maudie cannot serve as a jury simply because she is female.