ABSTRACT system is activated when the laser

ABSTRACT
This project is intended to establish our border as well as
remote locations more secure. The Smart Unmanned Border Security System (SUBS) aims
at reducing the burden on forces and providing an additional layer of security
with high precision and accuracy. The system is activated when the laser fencing is breached
and discharges the gun when an intruder is detected. This paper
discusses the power efficiency with its feasibility and applicability in remote
locations. It highlights the security concerns in the network and the
encryption techniques used. A dedicated Dashboard is created for providing the better user
interface and easy understanding of run-time data collected from nodes. The data is plotted against various specifications like the
current status of nodes, a point of failure of nodes, number of intrusions,
etc. at the headquarters for further strategic analysis.
KEYWORDS: border security system, unmanned,
gun system 
INTRODUCTION:
Stronger the protection of borders, safer
is the nation. With increasing intrusions and breaching of iron fences along
the borders, there has
been a growing section of people advocating for unmanned automatic gun control
systems to be implemented at the borders. There are
virtually no places left where intrusions have not been there,
be it the most inhabitable Siachen Glaciers,
damp and swampy. So there is a need to safeguard
these places with least or no human supervision. The Smart Unmanned Border Security System (SUBS) aims
at reducing the burden on forces and providing an additional layer of security
with high precision and accuracy. It aims at eliminating enemies with utmost accuracy and
reducing human-made errors. SUBS attend the internet of things (IoT) enabled the compact,
flexible, light-weight and robust system for providing border security
electronically and automatically. It is a network of wireless sensors to sense (detect.) intrusions. It is provided
with an array of actuators to eliminate the enemy in a process of raising alarm
and is connected to other succeeding nodes as well as connected to the Internet
for communication. Therefore, a particular node in
the system can be classified as the “thing” in the IoT ecosystem. This electro-prototyping project is based on Master-Slave Node Communication
model and provides intercommunication between slaves nodes possible as well as centralized control on the robust
network via Master nodes and works fine even in
case of one or more slave nodes failure. This project uses a public broker for MQTT communications using Pub-Sub model for secure
information communication. The complete system can be manually switched ON and OFF
according to the requirement wirelessly. Another aspect of this project is that, by using laser fencing instead of iron fencing, the SUBS can be operated
in dimmed mode and its activation can be made
dependent on the breaching of laser fencing. Hence, the
power consumption is markedly reduced. The project aims at determining a substitute for human
surveillance at the borders. 
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION: 
ARDUINO UNO: 
It is one of the most commonly used open source platform available
on the market. Arduino UNO
board uses Atmel microcontroller
and has a frequency of 16MHz. It has the sufficient number of I/O pins for analog, digital as well as PWM (pulse width
modulation) data. It has a power jack for external dc
supply as well as Serial USB adapter for communication with the computer. The devices
connected to it can be easily
programmed/configured using Arduino IDE (Integrated Development
Environment).It is used because of its simplicity,
flexibility, and fault tolerant capabilities. Additionally, it is inexpensive with low power requirements. 
NODE MCU: It is
a module which consists of esp8266 Wi-Fi
chip for network communications. It has 64 kb of instruction memory and
96 kb of data memory. It occupies
eight ports out of which two are the general purpose I/O ports. It considers
general purpose I/O ports and runs at a frequency of 80MHz. This board is
addressable over SPI and UART protocols. Simultaneously
this Wi-Fi chip can act as a station as well as an access point for the
connection with the Internet. It works on 3.3V logic and does not attach to an inbuilt
level shifter.
SERVO MOTOR: It is a type of DC used motors to push or rotate an object
with absolute precision and accuracy. It uses a Servomechanism which
essentially consists of three parts-controlled devices, output sensor, and
feedback system. It works on PWM and occupies three wires which
are the positive terminal of supply,
negative terminal of supply and
control signal wire respectively. It can yield a
total of 180 degrees that is 90 degrees from point of zero reflections. It can
work directly on the 5V supply.
ULTRASONIC SENSOR (HCSR04 Ranging Sensor): 
It is a sensor which can measure a substantial distance in the
range of 2cm to 400cm. Each HCSR04 unit essentially consists of onboard transmitter and
receiver modules and a control unit. There are four
pins VCC, echo, trigger, and ground respectively. It works on a frequency of 40 kHz and 40mA current with the
dimensions of 45*20*15mm. 
RELAY:
A Relay is an electromechanical and used switch to turn ON/OFF
the more crucial current circuits. It consists of two states NO (normally open.) and
NC (normally closed). By default, the relay is set to NC State. When the coil
inside the relay is energized, it aims it to the NO State. A tickling sound
is produced when the switching action is performed.
LASER LIGHT:
The Laser stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation. It is a capable device of demonstrating the highly intense
beam of light by utilizing the technique of optical amplification. 

LDR:
LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) acquires
the capability to vary its resistance granting to the moderate intensity which is also known as Photoresistor. The resistance of LDR is inversely proportional to
the light intensity which
decreases when the light intensity is
increased. 
working
The project can execute according to the
presence differently of the laser fencing or the iron fencing. When the latter
is present, the complete system is independent of the iron fencing breaching as
it is not capable of transmitting an electrical signal and solely dependent on
the ultrasonic sensor ranging which has to be active all the time thus
consuming power even when it is not required. The rest operation of nodes and the complete system is
exactly similar. In case of laser fencing
security, the laser and LDR (light detecting resistor) circuit
is kept at a distance of 300cm from the nodes of SUBS. Whenever there
is breaching of laser fencing that is whenever the connection between the laser light
and LDR is broken, it
sends a “LOW” signal to the controller and a buzzer goes ‘on’. This sets the
servo motor on which ultrasonic sensor is mounted to go into
the motion which has been till now in OFF
mode.The ultrasonic sensor goes from -60 degree to +60 degrees from
neutral or zero reference position. This is done to accomplish the complete -180 to +180 degree surveillances even in case of one or more node failure by expanding the range of nearby nodes. The individual node efficiency is sacrificed for the
robustness and fault tolerance of the robust system. Whenever the
intruder is detected in the range of 50cm from the ultrasonic the relay switch
sends a HIGH signal to the actuator which is laser light here starts firing
continuously in the direction of the intruder and observes it continuously if
it is moving. A Counter circuit is also used at the relay switch to
consider the number of shots fired (switching done). A counter circuitry
can also be used at the laser fencing to consider the number of intrusions. The distance of
the intruder along with the time-stamp is also transmitted
through MQTT and
web-socket connection to the server (or the cloud) using
gateway which is also the master node in our project. Each slave node has its own
identity and maintains a default list of the usernames and password of the
nearby nodes to which it has to connect. The slave nodes are also connected to
the station hosted by the master node and this
helps in ascertaining specific node failure. In case of node failure, a trigger has generated this changes the program to vary the range of
surveillance. The data from sensors is transmitted for sure transfer of the messages using MQTT due
to its data time interval. The data is transmitted using Publish-Subscribe model
on a public broker (in this project) on the ‘Topic’ of one’s choice. The data is transmitted using a protocol for easy understanding and retrieval of the
messages. The data received is analyzed by plotting data against the
number of specifications like the number of shots fired, the number of
intrusions made, the frequency of intrusions in particular time, etc. for
better and quick understanding. A dedicated dashboard is maintained which shows the
absolute number of nodes employed, number of nodes currently active or inactive. This interface can be viewed only with
authorized access as the dashboard can be opened only using a valid name and password combination preventing
any misuse of data. Individual nodes can also
be switched ON/OFF from headquarters by choosing the action and publishing it
on a subscribed topic by the nodes. 

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FUTURE SCOPE
The project can also be extended to develop a feasible webcam
controlled devices which will increase the sophistication and accuracy. It will consume
less amount very of power which ensures a much-needed condition for the borders. The intruders
will be detected by using a webcam so that the gun will shoot only the humans,
not the animals/birds. This system supports the manual switching of the device. Consequently,
the sent messages for the switching can also be encrypted to make it more
secure. This will ensure the intruder will not have the chance to
switch ON/OFF the device by the use of hacking. Since, it is very complex to change the power sources every
time at the borders so the system can use the renewable sources of energy such
as solar power, wind power, etc. This will increase the efficiency as well as
the organized use of power consumption.
CONCLUSION
SUBS is designed for the purpose of border security or no man
region areas near the army, navy, air force bases. It can work in
any part of the country irrespective of the geographical conditions. This system can
solely be used for surveillance and monitoring in the no man areas. With increasing
intrusions and breaching of iron fences along the borders, there has been a growing section of people advocating for
unmanned automatic gun control systems to be implemented at the borders. There are virtually no places left
where intrusions have not been there even the
most inhabitable Siachen Glaciers,
damp and swampy. So there is a need to
safeguard these places with least or no human supervision.
This system is based on the technology of “Internet of Things.”The principals used in this technology are:
A. 3A’s(Always-Anytime-Anywhere) 
B. 6T’s(Track-Think-Talk-Transfer-Trigger-Tell)
More the borders are protected, stronger and safer is the nation. The Smart
Unmanned Border Security System (SUBS) aims at
reducing the burden on forces which is determining an additional security with
high accuracy. It aims at eliminating enemies with utmost accuracy and
reducing human-made errors.

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