Abstract all the electronic control units (ECUs)

Abstract

A
new development within the internet of things is the development of connected
cars. Vehicles developed lately have connected more than 150 small computers
inside (ECUs), whose are creating in-vehicle network. These kind of vehicles
have multiple connection points on the internet which offer a lot of online
services to the users.

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Every
device that is connected on internet is exposed to a lot of online threats, the
same happens with the connected vehicle.

 

Keywords:
connected car, threat model, security embedded systems, protocols, etc.

 

Introduction

The
world is getting interconnected every day. The devices we are using are now
smart devices, even the vehicles we are using are becoming smart. A recent
development within internet of things are connected cars. Nearly every
functionality within a car has its electronic control unit (ECU) running on its
dedicated embedded controller with its own software. ECUs are used for many
purposes such as safety, comfortableness, entertainment energy saving. Each car
has approximately 100 to 150 ECUs which have more sensors and actuators
attached.

One
of the main parts of the vehicle is the internal vehicle network. This network
connects all the electronic control units (ECUs) in the car and each ECU is responsible
for a different car function. Internet vehicle network and the ECUs transform
the car to work on drive by wire technology. Some of the systems are:

–         
Intelligent
parking assistance,

–         
Lane keeping
system

–         
Being spot warning

All
of these are part of Advanced Driver Assistance System.

Recently,
researches have shown that it is possible to hack vehicles even remotely and to
control a variety of car actuators.

Background

An
embedded system is the electronic system which is created to access and to
control the data in electronic systems. The system includes a single chip
microcontroller such as ARM, cortex and microprocessors. For the first time
embedded systems in the automobile industry is used by Volkswagen in 1968.

Automotive
embedded systems are classified in some groups such as:

–         
airbag system

–         
GPS

–         
Anti – locking
braking system

–         
Fuel injection
controller devices

The
equipment in automotive industry are being changed from mechanic systems to
electronic systems. Embedded system is the heart of the vehicle electronic
systems because of its versatility and flexibility.

Advanced
usage of embedded systems in vehicle can help in controlling the pollution,
increasing the facility to provide systems monitoring features that consumers
demand.

A
typical vehicle nowadays contains around 25 to 35 microcontrollers. Automobiles
have computer controlled electronic systems and the most commonly used embedded
system include airbag, anti – lock braking systems, drive by wire, satellite
radio, traction control, automatic parking, night vision, navigation systems,
climate control, etc.

 

Connected
Cars

By
the definition, a connected car is a vehicle equipped with internet access
which allows to interact with other vehicles around it. When a connected car
has the internet access than that vehicle is able to use information to drive
the vehicle without human interaction.

In
the new vehicles there are a lot of new technologies installed but, the
technologies cannot be used without the internet connection.

Each
car consists of 100 to 150 ECUs (Electronic Control Units) which are small
computers that are networked together and control most of the vehicle
functions. Each ECU has a number of sensors and actuators attached to them. The
ECU and internal vehicle network replace the mechanical connections with
electrical systems and slowly transform the car to work on drive – by wire
technology.

Today’s
vehicles are equipped with a number of new technologies and features that were
not possible without an internet connection. Passengers no have the option to
receive service information and traffic reports through the vehicle’s dedicated
cellular connection. They also have the option to connect their smart phone to
the vehicle over the Bluetooth or Wi Fi connection and use the smart phone’s
internet connection to enable some of the new features of the vehicle’s
entertainment center. This center enables web browsing, access to social
networks, streaming of online content, and many other services depending on the
vehicle type and manufacturer.

In
the very near future, vehicles will communicate with each other (V2V) and with
the infrastructure around them. (V2I). This is going to reduce accidents and to
decrease gas consumption by letting vehicles communicate with each other and
have more control. Some of the major features of V2V technologies are to
determine the speed limit and in order to collect information about traffic and
road conditions the vehicles must be connected to the internet.

Vehicle
to vehicle (V2V) technology enables cars to wirelessly communicate with each
other and to maintain temporary networks among themselves in order to prevent
accidents. The information that is exchanged between two connected vehicles is
related to traffic safety and security, keeping a safe distance between the two
cars for preventing accidents or any other data that is meaningful to the
vehicles. This technology is challenging because of its distributed nature and
to implement V2V connection the car manufacturers need to agree on
communication technologies and protocols that will be used. Otherwise without
the mutual agreement between car manufacturers, the communication would be made
only between cars from the same brand.

V2I
(Vehicle to infrastructure) are technologies where the car communicates with
infrastructure environment around, which includes highways, road signs, traffic
lights. Also, it is possible to get information from traffic jams and
accidents. In the near future when most of the vehicles will be connected cars,
the traffic can be regulated by one central authority by giving suggestions to
all vehicles on the best route and speed, enabling an environment without
traffic jams, accidents and with less fuel consumption.Abstract

A
new development within the internet of things is the development of connected
cars. Vehicles developed lately have connected more than 150 small computers
inside (ECUs), whose are creating in-vehicle network. These kind of vehicles
have multiple connection points on the internet which offer a lot of online
services to the users.

Every
device that is connected on internet is exposed to a lot of online threats, the
same happens with the connected vehicle.

 

Keywords:
connected car, threat model, security embedded systems, protocols, etc.

 

Introduction

The
world is getting interconnected every day. The devices we are using are now
smart devices, even the vehicles we are using are becoming smart. A recent
development within internet of things are connected cars. Nearly every
functionality within a car has its electronic control unit (ECU) running on its
dedicated embedded controller with its own software. ECUs are used for many
purposes such as safety, comfortableness, entertainment energy saving. Each car
has approximately 100 to 150 ECUs which have more sensors and actuators
attached.

One
of the main parts of the vehicle is the internal vehicle network. This network
connects all the electronic control units (ECUs) in the car and each ECU is responsible
for a different car function. Internet vehicle network and the ECUs transform
the car to work on drive by wire technology. Some of the systems are:

–         
Intelligent
parking assistance,

–         
Lane keeping
system

–         
Being spot warning

All
of these are part of Advanced Driver Assistance System.

Recently,
researches have shown that it is possible to hack vehicles even remotely and to
control a variety of car actuators.

Background

An
embedded system is the electronic system which is created to access and to
control the data in electronic systems. The system includes a single chip
microcontroller such as ARM, cortex and microprocessors. For the first time
embedded systems in the automobile industry is used by Volkswagen in 1968.

Automotive
embedded systems are classified in some groups such as:

–         
airbag system

–         
GPS

–         
Anti – locking
braking system

–         
Fuel injection
controller devices

The
equipment in automotive industry are being changed from mechanic systems to
electronic systems. Embedded system is the heart of the vehicle electronic
systems because of its versatility and flexibility.

Advanced
usage of embedded systems in vehicle can help in controlling the pollution,
increasing the facility to provide systems monitoring features that consumers
demand.

A
typical vehicle nowadays contains around 25 to 35 microcontrollers. Automobiles
have computer controlled electronic systems and the most commonly used embedded
system include airbag, anti – lock braking systems, drive by wire, satellite
radio, traction control, automatic parking, night vision, navigation systems,
climate control, etc.

 

Connected
Cars

By
the definition, a connected car is a vehicle equipped with internet access
which allows to interact with other vehicles around it. When a connected car
has the internet access than that vehicle is able to use information to drive
the vehicle without human interaction.

In
the new vehicles there are a lot of new technologies installed but, the
technologies cannot be used without the internet connection.

Each
car consists of 100 to 150 ECUs (Electronic Control Units) which are small
computers that are networked together and control most of the vehicle
functions. Each ECU has a number of sensors and actuators attached to them. The
ECU and internal vehicle network replace the mechanical connections with
electrical systems and slowly transform the car to work on drive – by wire
technology.

Today’s
vehicles are equipped with a number of new technologies and features that were
not possible without an internet connection. Passengers no have the option to
receive service information and traffic reports through the vehicle’s dedicated
cellular connection. They also have the option to connect their smart phone to
the vehicle over the Bluetooth or Wi Fi connection and use the smart phone’s
internet connection to enable some of the new features of the vehicle’s
entertainment center. This center enables web browsing, access to social
networks, streaming of online content, and many other services depending on the
vehicle type and manufacturer.

In
the very near future, vehicles will communicate with each other (V2V) and with
the infrastructure around them. (V2I). This is going to reduce accidents and to
decrease gas consumption by letting vehicles communicate with each other and
have more control. Some of the major features of V2V technologies are to
determine the speed limit and in order to collect information about traffic and
road conditions the vehicles must be connected to the internet.

Vehicle
to vehicle (V2V) technology enables cars to wirelessly communicate with each
other and to maintain temporary networks among themselves in order to prevent
accidents. The information that is exchanged between two connected vehicles is
related to traffic safety and security, keeping a safe distance between the two
cars for preventing accidents or any other data that is meaningful to the
vehicles. This technology is challenging because of its distributed nature and
to implement V2V connection the car manufacturers need to agree on
communication technologies and protocols that will be used. Otherwise without
the mutual agreement between car manufacturers, the communication would be made
only between cars from the same brand.

V2I
(Vehicle to infrastructure) are technologies where the car communicates with
infrastructure environment around, which includes highways, road signs, traffic
lights. Also, it is possible to get information from traffic jams and
accidents. In the near future when most of the vehicles will be connected cars,
the traffic can be regulated by one central authority by giving suggestions to
all vehicles on the best route and speed, enabling an environment without
traffic jams, accidents and with less fuel consumption.

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