A three phase project over 33 months is proposed. The study will collect primary information from rioters, police and witnesses. Phase one will systematically describe the views from different people involved within the riots and examine the ways in which factors changed within society and communities. Phase two will examine links between theoretical researches and compare it to the new rules that government released to see if there is a change within schools, families and attitudes, this will also show if gangs are still forming within communities. The final phase will involve analysis and the discussion of these findings, there will also be a comparison in the ways different cities dealt with the riots and what procedures were put into place to prevent them from happening again.MethodologyTo get detailed qualitative information on authorities, witnesses and rioters involved in the 2011 riots. I propose to questionnaire and interview a large number of people involved, approximately 150 of each person, within all six cities that were affected. Such a design will need to recruit many researchers and students to build relations and maintain objectivity throughout the research.We will recruit psychology students from both the University of Central Lancashire and London universities to help us conduct interviews and collect completed questionnaires. Before the research takes placeWe will write to a number of different people that were convicted and a part of the riots and offer them the opportunity to take part in this study. It is also proposed that researchers make initial contact by visiting respondents at home, to help put them at ease. Primarily, it will be local contacts that are used to find such people that were involved in the riots but had not been arrested. Anonymity will be offered as a chance for respondents to put their views across without fear of repercussions.The interviews that will take place will be in various locations, such as homes, cafes, youth clubs, libraries etc. We will ask The Ministry of Justice to allow us to have access to prisons, thus enabling us to create interviews with certain people convicted for their involvement in the riots. However, we are aware that there will be more people involved that will not have been convicted.QuestionsBoth questionnaires and interviews will ask about age, origin, address, past criminal convictions etc. however, other questions will include;· How many people do you know that were involved?· Have you proceeded in gang related incidents since the riots?· Have you engaged in any community initiatives since the riots?· How were you punished for your acts?· Why do you feel there has not been a repeat of events that happened in 2011?· What was the reason for our crime?The interviews for the police officials and judges will be along the same lines, however tweaked to fit their criteria;· How many people were convicted by you?· Have there been any more gang related incidents since the riots of 2011?· Do you feel there has been a change within communities to prevent this kind of riot happening again?· How were people punished for their acts?· What action do you think should have been taken in the aftermath of the riots?All interviews will be semi-prepared in order to get as much information and possible from the interviewees and different aspects and views from the five days of riots and looting. Phase oneThe first phase of this study will be completed in ten months. The use of questionnaires will be used to collect information of the riots, how people felt and how they feel it was resolved and why they felt it never happened again and procedures that were put into place afterwards. They will also be asked about families and schools and the way in which police officers deal with similar situations now. With this, basic demographic data will also be collected about the interviewees. This will include factors such as where they live, their ethnicity and age, their educational qualifications, whether they had previous criminal history and whether they currently work or have worked in the past.As well as the questionnaires that will be handed out, we will also carry out confidential semi-prepared interviews with hundreds of people that were directly involved in the riots within the six cities that were effected. These will be recorded and will aim to bring up certain topics and resolutions. The interviews will be conducted in the knowledge that some respondents may be uncomfortable talking about certain aspects of their experiences, and this will be taken into account when asking follow up questions. This will also be emphasised as an important instruction to all interviewers in pre-interview briefings. Interviews will last approximately 30-40 minutes. A handful of teachers from the local schools will also be interviewed to discuss how they have changed their support and input on students who give them cause for concern, to help make a difference within their community. Phase twoThe second phase of this study will also be completed in 10 months. This will involve semi-prepared interviews with police, judges and court officials and a series of community-based debates about the riots. The questions will be deliberately neutral and researchers as discussed in briefings will be discouraged from asking leading questions. Each interview will last approximately 50 minutes and will be allowed extra time for an extended discussion between researchers and respondents. This will provide first-hand accounts of people’s experiences and perspectives, in order to continue the thread of authenticity established in phase one of the process. As mentioned above, all interviews will be recorded, transcribed and stored in a database.Phase threePhase three of the study will take 13 months, once all the data is collected. A team of research analysts will begin analysing the transcripts and questionnaires in search of themes. Initially an analyst will read a transcript to get an overview of the contents and ideas being offered by the respondent. It will be important at this point to allow for the varying levels of engagement by respondents, due to issues around nervousness mentioned in phase two. Another issue to consider will be the potentially dramatically different types of articulation that different respondents will be capable of (with particular allowance for issues such as dialect). After several readings have taken place each transcript will then be coded, so particular themes that run throughout all transcripts can be identified and evidenced.A list of coding labels will then be produced – ideally themes and sub-themes that came to light throughout the interviews – and these will be reviewed by the research team on a regular basis. The links and relationships between these themes and sub-themes will be correlated, thus, providing a detailed picture of why there was never a repeat of the 2011 riots that occurred in England.Benefits and research outcomesIt is anticipated that the study will allow significant advances in theoretical understanding of the reasons why there was no repeat of the 2011, August riots in England. I am also hoping it will contribute to further studies and research on factors that contribute to riots happening and further increase support in order to prevent the marginalisation and disenfranchisement of certain socio-economic groups from taking root in the first place.Interviews that take place will highlight important matters that arise within communities and society in order to prevent further lootings and riots happening within England and also other countries. Research states that other psychologists and authorities will be interested in the findings. Ethical considerationsThe ethics code of the British Psychological Society and regulations will be followed at all times, also ethics from the Data Protection Act. Participant consent will be sought and permission for reporting data. We will consider that this is an emotional topic and will be as considerate as possible, and if the need arises we can signpost respondents to relative services as they become necessary, such as counselling. Anonymity of all involved will be maintained at all times.