The most consumed substance in this study was found to be
clay, defined as geophagia. Most women justified their eating habits as desire,
and found that consumption of foods they desired therefore decreased their
level of anxiety about the high risk nature of their pregnancy.  Cultural aspects were found to be the
strongest reason for pica, as some cultures justified to practice of ingesting
items such as brick and leaves. 
Difficulty still lies in the etiology and true prevalence of pica
though, as many women wouldn’t define some things as nonfood substances, and
many often feel too embarrassed by the abnormal nature of their cravings to
admit to doing so.

A 5.7% of pica practice was found in
this study, and although it is low, it is important to take into consideration
that women may not fully understand the complete range of non-nutritive items
that are considered pica practice, and some may have not felt the need to
self-report due to feelings of normalcy about cultural attitudes towards pica.

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Prenatal information and education is imperative to those women undergoing
high-risk pregnancies, and especially important in women who admit to
practicing pica in addition.  Although
the cause is not definitely known, the effects could potentially harm the fetus
as well as the mother’s nutritional intake, leading to deficiencies and further
potentiate complications in pregnancy (Santos, et al., 2015). 

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