1. What are the essential elements of a cultural assessment and a human capital audit? When should they be conducted? Why?A cultural and human audit is conducted to gather information about an organization’s culture and its people. This review is performed with the purpose to understand a potential client’s organizational hierarchies, business purposes, performance structures, and their working environment. Furthermore, they also want to know how employees meet their deadlines and make critical connections to accomplish their work. The audit reveals more about the invisible part of the organization’ s distinct culture, anticipated behaviors, ethics, and routes of communication, all critical to a successful merger. They also perform a leadership assessment review to access the possible key leaders’ work experience, accomplishments, attitude, principles, strength, and weaker points in firms that are being merged. Since, executive leadership style defines an organization’s culture, its attitude to innovation, upholding external connections and influencing teams to work performance. Additionally, there are several essential elements of a cultural and human audit as companies nowadays, take a practical approach to perform these audits before and after a merger to understand and tackle any prevailing cultural and management issues in the prospective organization. It is fundamental to execute the cultural assessment before a merger to recognize the possible problems that could occur when the two establishments join. Thus, the cultural audit prevents the organization from merging with same size companies that have incompatible cultures where the management practices initiative conflicting conducts that could lead to a potential risk of losing the best team players and alleviates the dangers of a culture clash. Moreover, there are several reasons for corporate mergers. First, a business attempts to merge with other same size business for collaboration, which increases performance and decreases cost. Second, companies join to diversify and gain market penetration in a particular geographic area of operations with the target to reduce the impact of other businesses performance on their profitability. Third, mergers can offer the company with an opportunity to grow market share by selling their brand to local customers without having to work themselves to earn it. Fourth, mergers aid to increase supply chain, where if a company buys out one of its distributors, this can help the business to reduce their cost levels while shipping their products and save their margins. Fifth, mergers allows to eliminate current or future competition, and gain a more significant market share for its products.Another critical task in the merger is to consider how to staff workforce in the new joint organization as they need to layoff unfitted employees to reduce costs and fill the positions with most excellent people. Hence, a human capital audit is performed for talent assessment and selection of hardworking employees who are inclined to cooperate with new colleagues and in the future to help shape the organization’s culture. The human audit assists the potential client to assess the talent before entering into a merger agreement and to offer merging companies an accurate way to match talent to roles in the new organization. Hence, it is fundamental to have strategic talent management before, during, and after the merger process as a part of the merger strategy to successfully uphold employee confidence and commitment.Therefore, it is vital to understand the significance of cultural and human assessment before and after a recent merger to confirm that they have accomplished all of their objectives and motives for alliances such as market dominance, and successful integration. Chapter 61. In what ways can expatriates be agents of control or boundary spanners for the multinational organization? Expatriates are staffs of an association in one country who carry out business projects for certain period in other countries. The global environment intricacies give the need for nonstop environmental skimming and information exchange. Hence, expatriates duties are to emphasize coordination and control to these geographically dispersed multinational organizations to operate smoothly. They are agents of control as they represent the structure of one country to aid their companies to form business operations in other countries, enter foreign markets, and skills transference to their companies. Therefore, the knowledge gathered by these expatriates helps organizations advance their managing skills and increase their aptitude to succeed in a global economy. The expatriate agents perform several direct roles for the multinational corporation. First, their tasks may comprise formal authority to install rules and procedures that are directed from headquarters such that they are performed unfailing throughout the subsidiaries of the organization. Second, expatriates act as direct surveillance of subsidiaries to ensure that subsidiary actions and employees behaviors are consistent with headquarters orders, standards, and expectations. On the other hand, their indirect roles are transmission company principles and views throughout the subsidiaries of the organization. Second, they also perform the role of a knowledge disseminator as they transfer technical knowledge and awareness skills from the parent to overseas subsidiaries. Third, they support their partners to install corporate mandated working practices, quality standards and technologies with new products and provide market awareness to increase market dominance. Fourth, they contribute to the uniform adoption of headquarter practices throughout the organization to improve business control, achieve goals and monitor performance. Fifth, they help create the network of support with the corporate through interpersonal relationships that construct easy control for information exchange. Meanwhile, expatriates also inhabit roles as boundary spanners because they bridge the boundary gap between headquarters and the subsidiary and even between the home and overseas host countries. Additionally, their boundary-spanning roles include information exchange from headquarter to offshore organizational units, cultural translator among foreign nations and parent company advocate to ensure that the overseas subsidiaries understand the parent companies’ culture, principles, and ethics. Secondly, they represent the corporate organization to its affiliates and the public while transmitting valuable materials such as management skills and competencies throughout the partner units, and simultaneously forming interpersonal connections with host countries. Third, their role as boundary spanners helps them to perform as culture advisors as they work closely with overseas subsidiaries, and distributors, which gives them the power to successfully bond different cultures with the corporate organization ensuring that they understand the parent companies’ standards and values.Thus, it is vital to recognize the roles of expatriates as boundary spanners and agents of control because they make an essential input to support the corporate organizations to gain market dominance by helping overseas allies to have corporate approved working practices and performance standards so that the headquarter can increase control over local partners business operations.2. Discuss the opposing tensions that must be considered in global staffing and talent management systems.The purpose of this assignment is so to provide an outline of the causes of tensions for hiring global expatriates and provide solutions to how it can be resolved. The corporate headquarter makes the staffing decisions for global expatriates. However, HR managers have trouble recruiting and managing global staffs due to differences in labor markets, culture, and institutional environments around the globe. There are numerous challenges in global recruitment and selection of expatriates. First, they have trouble finding the potential qualified applicant to fill in positions as the role of expatriates because, in addition to satisfying a technical requisite, expatriates perform a number of other functions in the organization, which can be classified as agents of control or boundary spanning. Second, agencies might not have programs that can successfully incorporate the overseas assignment into the individuals’ career advancement. They might find themselves being disoriented as they find themselves with the lack of suitable work position at the organization. Third, lack of better compensation for these overseas assignments results in expatriates to not even be motivated to undertake the foreign assignment. Hence, the firms have trouble recruiting applicant who is willing to accept work with limited reimbursement. Fourth, the incapability of the family or the spouse to adjust to the new environment can also affect adversely on the relocated expatriate’s job performance. Hence it raises the chances of assignment failure or causes an untimely returning home. Furthermore, the adjustment could be more challenging to the family, or the spouse if they don’t speak the host country’s language or has limited familiarity with its culture. These negative outlooks can affect the relationship between the expatriate and their spouse and may be the reason for an impending breakup and family separation. Fifth, shortage of experience of the global staff results in recruitment challenges as they need to choose the right individuals who will successfully perform the overseas operations. Furthermore, expatriates fail to exercise their roles because they have difficulties adjusting to the new environment in the host country which can negatively influence their capability to make the accurate decisions and construct good relations with coworkers, commercial partners and executives in that country. Fifth, sending out expatriates can be very costly for the company as they need to stand high direct costs such as salary, training costs, and relocation expenses but also endure indirect expenditures. However, these tensions can be rectified by a better understanding of a country’s succession planning and development of strategic policies. Second, the candidate should possess advanced technical proficiency and agility in building connections with people from the host country. Moreover, the expatriates should have distinguished interpersonal skills with low ethnocentrism inclinations as they should exhibit empathy for other cultures, open-mindedness, inquisitiveness and possess different language skills. These qualities will make the candidate more likely to adjust themselves to foreign cultures and environments. Third, the potential expatriates should like the notion of being employed in a foreign country and should be flexible to cultural and management changes. Fourth, they expatriates should receive cross-cultural training that will prepare and increase their capacity to manage their work in a foreign environment. Fifth, the corporate office should consider conversing and training the expatriate’s families or significant partner to assess, how willing they are to move or how mindful they are about the challenges correlating due to a foreign transfer as these training can be very useful in facilitating expatriates and their families to adjust. Sixth, they should aid the spouses with the provision of work permits, or provide to them with information about career opportunities. Thus, it is crucial to understand the opposing tensions that must be considered in global staffing and talent management systems so that we can learn how to rectify or alleviate these pressure with a better understanding of a country’s succession planning.